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  • Author or Editor: Daniel Sutter x
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Daniel Sutter and Somer Erickson


The authors examine the cost of time spent under tornado warnings issued annually by the National Weather Service (NWS). County-based tornado warnings imposed substantial costs on the nation: an average of 234 million person-hours spent under warnings annually between 1996 and 2004, with a value of $2.7 billion (U.S. dollars) per year. Counties are large relative to tornado damage areas; therefore, county-based warnings overwarned for tornadoes, warning many persons a safe distance from the storm and not in immediate danger. In October 2007 the NWS introduced storm-based warnings (SBW) for tornadoes, which are expected to reduce the area warned by 70%–75%. SBW consequently will reduce the time spent under warnings by over 160 million person-hours per year, with a value of $1.9 billion. The time spent under warnings does not measure the full cost to society because many people do not respond to the warnings. Adjusting for warning response, this study estimates that SBW might save 66 million person-hours actually spent sheltering a year with a value of $750 million. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the value of time spent sheltering saved by SBW exceeds $100 million per year with a probability of 0.95.

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Kevin M. Simmons and Daniel Sutter


This paper extends prior research on the societal value of tornado warnings to the impact of false alarms. Intuition and theory suggest that false alarms will reduce the response to warnings, yet little evidence of a “false alarm effect” has been unearthed. This paper exploits differences in the false-alarm ratio across the United States to test for a false-alarm effect in a regression model of tornado casualties from 1986 to 2004. A statistically significant and large false-alarm effect is found: tornadoes that occur in an area with a higher false-alarm ratio kill and injure more people, everything else being constant. The effect is consistent across false-alarm ratios defined over different geographies and time intervals. A one-standard-deviation increase in the false-alarm ratio increases expected fatalities by between 12% and 29% and increases expected injuries by between 14% and 32%. The reduction in the national tornado false-alarm ratio over the period reduced fatalities by 4%–11% and injuries by 4%–13%. The casualty effects of false alarms and warning lead times are approximately equal in magnitude, suggesting that the National Weather Service could not reduce casualties by trading off a higher probability of detection for a higher false-alarm ratio, or vice versa.

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