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Paul Poli, Hans Hersbach, Dick P. Dee, Paul Berrisford, Adrian J. Simmons, Frédéric Vitart, Patrick Laloyaux, David G. H. Tan, Carole Peubey, Jean-Noël Thépaut, Yannick Trémolet, Elías V. Hólm, Massimo Bonavita, Lars Isaksen, and Michael Fisher

Abstract

The ECMWF twentieth century reanalysis (ERA-20C; 1900–2010) assimilates surface pressure and marine wind observations. The reanalysis is single-member, and the background errors are spatiotemporally varying, derived from an ensemble. The atmospheric general circulation model uses the same configuration as the control member of the ERA-20CM ensemble, forced by observationally based analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice cover, atmospheric composition changes, and solar forcing. The resulting climate trend estimations resemble ERA-20CM for temperature and the water cycle. The ERA-20C water cycle features stable precipitation minus evaporation global averages and no spurious jumps or trends. The assimilation of observations adds realism on synoptic time scales as compared to ERA-20CM in regions that are sufficiently well observed. Comparing to nighttime ship observations, ERA-20C air temperatures are 1 K colder. Generally, the synoptic quality of the product and the agreement in terms of climate indices with other products improve with the availability of observations. The MJO mean amplitude in ERA-20C is larger than in 20CR version 2c throughout the century, and in agreement with other reanalyses such as JRA-55. A novelty in ERA-20C is the availability of observation feedback information. As shown, this information can help assess the product’s quality on selected time scales and regions.

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