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E. S. Takle, J. Roads, B. Rockel, W. J. Gutowski Jr., R. W. Arritt, I. Meinke, C. G. Jones, and A. Zadra
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E. S. Takle, J. Roads, B. Rockel, W. J. Gutowski Jr., R. W. Arritt, I. Meinke, C. G. Jones, and A. Zadra

A new approach, called transferability intercomparisons, is described for advancing both understanding and modeling of the global water cycle and energy budget. Under this approach, individual regional climate models perform simulations with all modeling parameters and parameterizations held constant over a specific period on several prescribed domains representing different climatic regions. The transferability framework goes beyond previous regional climate model intercomparisons to provide a global method for testing and improving model parameterizations by constraining the simulations within analyzed boundaries for several domains. Transferability intercomparisons expose the limits of our current regional modeling capacity by examining model accuracy on a wide range of climate conditions and realizations. Intercomparison of these individual model experiments provides a means for evaluating strengths and weaknesses of models outside their “home domains” (domain of development and testing). Reference sites that are conducting coordinated measurements under the continental-scale experiments under the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Hydrometeorology Panel provide data for evaluation of model abilities to simulate specific features of the water and energy cycles. A systematic intercomparison across models and domains more clearly exposes collective biases in the modeling process. By isolating particular regions and processes, regional model transferability intercomparisons can more effectively explore the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of predictability. A general improvement of model ability to simulate diverse climates will provide more confidence that models used for future climate scenarios might be able to simulate conditions on a particular domain that are beyond the range of previously observed climates.

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P. A. Phoebus, D. R. Smith, R. A. McPherson, M. J. Hayes, J. M. Moran, P. J. Croft, J. T. Snow, E. S. Takle, R. L. Fauquet, L. M. Bastiaans, and J. W. Zeitler

The American Meteorological Society (AMS) held its Seventh Symposium on Education in conjunction with the 78th AMS Annual Meeting. The theme of the symposium was “Atmospheric and Oceanographic Education: Advancing Our Awareness.” Thirty-six oral presentations and 47 poster presentations summarized a variety of educational programs or examined educational issues relevant for both the precollege and university levels.

There were also joint sessions held with the Second Conference on Coastal Atmospheric and Oceanic Prediction and Processes and the Ninth Conference on Interaction of the Sea and Atmosphere, as well as the 10th Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instruments. Over 200 people representing a wide spectrum of the Society attended one or more of the sessions during this two-day event.

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Daniel A. Rajewski, Eugene S. Takle, Julie K. Lundquist, Steven Oncley, John H. Prueger, Thomas W. Horst, Michael E. Rhodes, Richard Pfeiffer, Jerry L. Hatfield, Kristopher K. Spoth, and Russell K. Doorenbos

Perturbations of mean and turbulent wind characteristics by large wind turbines modify fluxes between the vegetated surface and the lower boundary layer. While simulations have suggested that wind farms could significantly change surface fluxes of heat, momentum, momentum, moisture, and CO2 over hundreds of square kilometers, little observational evidence exists to test these predictions. Quantifying the influences of the “turbine layer” is necessary to quantify how surface fluxes are modified and to better forecast energy production by a wind farm. Changes in fluxes are particularly important in regions of intensely managed agriculture where crop growth and yield are highly dependent on subtle changes in moisture, heat, and CO2. Furthermore, speculations abound about the possible mesoscale consequences of boundary layer changes that are produced by wind farms. To address the lack of observations to answer these questions, we developed the Crop Wind Energy Experiment (CWEX) as a multiagency, multiuniversity field program in central Iowa. Throughout the summer of 2010, surface fluxes were documented within a wind farm test site and a 2-week deployment of a vertically pointing lidar quantified wind profiles. In 2011, we expanded measurements at the site by deploying six flux stations and two wind-profiling lidars to document turbine wakes. The results provide valuable insights into the exchanges over a surface that has been modified by wind turbines and a basis for a more comprehensive measurement program planned for the summer in 2014.

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