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Huug van den Dool, Emily Becker, Li-Chuan Chen, and Qin Zhang


An ordinary regression of predicted versus observed probabilities is presented as a direct and simple procedure for minimizing the Brier score (BS) and improving the attributes diagram. The main example applies to seasonal prediction of extratropical sea surface temperature by a global coupled numerical model. In connection with this calibration procedure, the probability anomaly correlation (PAC) is developed. This emphasizes the exact analogy of PAC and minimizing BS to the widely used anomaly correlation (AC) and minimizing mean squared error in physical units.

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Michelle L. L’Heureux, Michael K. Tippett, Ken Takahashi, Anthony G. Barnston, Emily J. Becker, Gerald D. Bell, Tom E. Di Liberto, Jon Gottschalck, Michael S. Halpert, Zeng-Zhen Hu, Nathaniel C. Johnson, Yan Xue, and Wanqiu Wang


Three strategies for creating probabilistic forecast outlooks for El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are compared. One is subjective and is currently used by the NOAA/Climate Prediction Center (CPC) to produce official ENSO outlooks. A second is purely objective and is based on the North American Multimodel Ensemble (NMME). A new third strategy is proposed in which the forecaster only provides the expected value of the Niño-3.4 index, and then categorical probabilities are objectively determined based on past skill. The new strategy results in more confident probabilities compared to the subjective approach and higher verification scores, while avoiding the significant forecast busts that sometimes afflict the NMME-based objective approach. The higher verification scores of the new strategy appear to result from the added value that forecasters provide in predicting the mean, combined with more reliable representations of uncertainty, which is difficult to represent because forecasters often assume less confidence than is justified. Moreover, the new approach can produce higher-resolution probabilistic forecasts that include ENSO strength information and that are difficult, if not impossible, for forecasters to produce. To illustrate, a nine-category ENSO outlook based on the new strategy is assessed and found to be skillful. The new approach can be applied to other outlooks where users desire higher-resolution probabilistic forecasts, including the extremes.

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