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Guoqing Ge, Jidong Gao, and Ming Xue

Abstract

This paper investigates the impacts of assimilating measurements of different state variables, which can be potentially available from various observational platforms, on the cycled analysis and short-range forecast of supercell thunderstorms by performing a set of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) using a storm-scale three-dimensional variational data assimilation (3DVAR) method. The control experiments assimilate measurements every 5 min for 90 min. It is found that the assimilation of horizontal wind can reconstruct the storm structure rather accurately. The assimilation of vertical velocity , potential temperature , or water vapor can partially rebuild the thermodynamic and precipitation fields but poorly retrieves the wind fields. The assimilation of rainwater mixing ratio can build up the precipitation fields together with a reasonable cold pool but is unable to properly recover the wind fields. Overall, data have the greatest impact, while have the second largest impact. The impact of is the smallest. The impact of assimilation frequency is examined by comparing results using 1-, 5-, or 10-min assimilation intervals. When is assimilated every 5 or 10 min, the analysis quality can be further improved by the incorporation of additional types of observations. When are assimilated every minute, the benefit from additional types of observations is negligible, except for . It is also found that for , , and measurements, more frequent assimilation leads to more accurate analyses. For and , a 1-min assimilation interval does not produce a better analysis than a 5-min interval.

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