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Linghui Cai, Shaoping Shang, Guomei Wei, Zhigang He, Yanshuang Xie, Ke Liu, Tao Zhou, Jinquan Chen, Feng Zhang, and Yan Li


Dual high-frequency (HF) radar systems are often used to provide measurements of waves, winds, and currents. In this study, the accuracy of wave measurements using a single HF radar system (OS081H-A) was explored using datasets obtained during 5–27 January 2014 in the southwestern Taiwan Strait. We selected the study region as an area with >90% coverage (i.e., the range was <100 km). Qualitative and quantitative intercomparison of wave measurements (by the radar and five buoys) and wave model products [from the Simulating Wave Nearshore (SWAN) model] were conducted. Intercomparison of the modeled and in situ significant wave height Hs showed that the model-predicted Hs could be considered to be acceptable for use as “sea truth” to evaluate the radar-derived Hs, with mean bias from −0.45 to −0.16 m, mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.24–0.45 m, and root-mean-square error of 0.31–0.54 m. It was found that the MAE of radar-derived Hs was ≤ 1 m for 86% of the sector (except at the edge of sector) when the model-predicted Hs was ≥ 1.5 m. In particular, the MAE was less than 0.6 m for 63% of the sector, which was mainly distributed in the area with a bearing from −50° to +70° and a range of 20–70 km. The results are promising, but more work is needed. We employed a spatial distribution function for the MAE of the radar-derived Hs over the sample duration based on range, bearing, and mean radar-derived Hs.

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Guomei Wei, Zhigang He, Yanshuang Xie, Shaoping Shang, Hao Dai, Jingyu Wu, Ke Liu, Rui Lin, Yan Wan, Hang Lin, Jinrui Chen, and Yan Li


Two Ocean State Monitoring and Analyzing Radar (OSMAR071) (7.8 MHz) high-frequency (HF) radars and four moored ADCPs were operated concurrently in the southwestern Taiwan Strait during January–March 2013. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of surface currents were conducted between the HF radars and the ADCPs. Except for a location probably affected by shallow water and sand waves on the Taiwan Banks, the HF-radar-derived radial currents (radials) showed good agreement with the ADCP measured results (correlation coefficient: 0.89–0.98; rms difference: 0.07–0.13 m s−1). To provide further insight into the geophysical processes involved, the performance of the HF-radar-derived radials was further evaluated under different sea states (sea states: 2–6). It was found that both the data returns of the radar-derived radials and the differences between the radar-derived radials and the ADCP-derived radials varied with sea state. The HF radar performed best at sea state 4 in terms of data returns. The spatial coverage increased rapidly as the waves increased from sea state 2 to 4. However, it decreased slowly from sea state 4 to 6. Second, the radial differences were relatively high under lower sea states (2 and 3) at the location where the best agreement was obtained between the radar and ADCP radials, whereas the differences increased as the sea states increased at the other three locations. The differences between the radials measured by the HF radars and the ADCPs could be attributed to wave-induced Stokes drift and spatial sampling differences.

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