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David K. Adams, Henrique M. J. Barbosa, and Karen Patricia Gaitán De Los Ríos

Abstract

Deep atmospheric convection, which covers a large range of spatial scales during its evolution, continues to be a challenge for models to replicate, particularly over land in the tropics. Specifically, the shallow-to-deep convective transition and organization on the mesoscale are often not properly represented in coarse-resolution models. High-resolution models offer insights on physical mechanisms responsible for the shallow-to-deep transition. Model verification, however, at both coarse and high resolution requires validation and, hence, observational metrics, which are lacking in the tropics. Here a straightforward metric derived from the Amazon Dense GNSS Meteorological Network (~100 km × 100 km) is presented based on a spatial correlation decay time scale during convective evolution on the mesoscale. For the shallow-to-deep transition, the correlation decay time scale is shown to be around 3.5 h. This novel result provides a much needed metric from the deep tropics for numerical models to replicate.

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