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  • Author or Editor: Hiroyuki Hashiguchi x
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Atsushi Kudo, Hubert Luce, Hiroyuki Hashiguchi, and Richard Wilson

Abstract

Deep turbulent layers can sometimes be observed on the underside of clouds that extend above upper-level frontal zones. In a recent study based on 3D numerical simulations with idealized initial conditions, it was found that midlevel cloud-base turbulence (MCT) can result from Rayleigh–Bénard-like convection as a result of cooling by sublimation of precipitating snow into dry and weakly stratified subcloud layers. In the present study, numerically simulated MCT was compared with a turbulent layer detected by the very high-frequency (VHF) middle- and upper-atmosphere (MU) radar during the passage of an upper-level front topped by clouds. The simulations were initialized with thermodynamic parameters derived from simultaneous radiosonde data. It was found that some important features of the simulated MCT (such as the scale of convection and vertical wind velocity perturbations) agreed quantitatively well with those reported in radar observations. Even if the possibility of other generation mechanisms cannot be ruled out, the good agreement strongly suggests that the MU radar actually detected MCT.

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Eiko Wada, Hiroyuki Hashiguchi, Masayuki K. Yamamoto, Michihiro Teshiba, and Shoichiro Fukao

Abstract

Observations of frontal cirrus clouds were conducted with the scanning millimeter-wave radar at the Shigaraki Middle and Upper Atmosphere (MU) Radar Observatory in Shiga, Japan, during 30 September–13 October 2000. The three-dimensional background winds were also observed with the very high frequency (VHF) band MU radar. Comparing the observational results of the two radars, it was found that the cirrus clouds appeared coincident with the layers of the strong vertical shear of the horizontal winds, and they developed and became thicker under the condition of the strong vertical shear of the horizontal wind and updraft. The result of the radiosonde observation indicated that Kelvin–Helmholtz instability (KHI) occurred at 8–9-km altitudes because of the strong vertical shear of the horizontal wind. The warm and moist air existed above the 8.5-km altitude, and the cold and dry air existed below the 8.5-km altitude. As a result of the airmass mixing of air above and below the 8.5-km altitudes, the cirrus clouds were formed. The updraft, which existed at 8.5–12-km altitude, caused the development of the cirrus clouds with the thickness of >2 km. By using the scanning millimeter-wave radar, the three-dimensional structure of cell echoes formed by KHI for the first time were successfully observed.

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Akihisa Uematsu, Hiroyuki Hashiguchi, Michihiro Teshiba, Hisamichi Tanaka, Koichi Hirashima, and Shoichiro Fukao

Abstract

Observations of fogs with a millimeter-wave scanning Doppler radar were conducted at Kushiro in Hokkaido, Japan, in the summer seasons of 1999 and 2000. Three typical types of plan position indicator (PPI) displays were observed: cellular echoes with high radar reflectivity factors (∼−10 dBZ), uniformly distributed echoes with high reflectivities (∼−10 dBZ), and uniformly distributed echoes with low reflectivities (∼−30 dBZ). The authors focused on advection fog with cellular echoes observed on 5 August 1999 and 31 July 2000. Echoes showed structures of cells with a reflectivity of −10 dBZ and with intervals of about 1 km. This echo pattern moved northward (i.e., from the sea to the land). There was a vertical shear of the horizontal wind at a height around 200 m in both cases, and structures of each cell were upright above the shear line and were leaning below it. The direction and the speed of the echo pattern in both PPI and range–height indicator (RHI) displays agreed well with that of the horizontal wind at heights above the shear (200 m). In the echo cells, existence of drizzle drops is implied.

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