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  • Author or Editor: Hung-Lung Huang x
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Hung-Lung Huang and Paolo Antonelli

Abstract

A simulation study is used to demonstrate the application of principal component analysis to both the compression of, and meteorological parameter retrieval from, high-resolution infrared spectra. The study discusses the fundamental aspects of spectral correlation, distributions, and noise; the correlation between principal components (PCs) and atmospheric-level temperature and water vapor; and how an optimal subset of PCs is selected so a good compression ratio and high retrieval accuracy are obtained.

Principal component analysis, principal component compression, and principal component regression under certain conditions are shown to provide 1) nearly full spectral information with little degradation, 2) noise reduction, 3) data compression with a compression ratio of approximately 15, and 4) tolerable loss of accuracy in temperature and water vapor retrieval. The techniques will therefore be valuable tools for data compression and the accurate retrieval of meteorological parameters from new-generation satellite instruments.

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Hung-Lung Huang, William L. Smith, and Harold M. Woolf

Abstract

A theoretical analysis is performed to evaluate the accuracy and vertical resolution of atmospheric profiles obtained with the HIRS/2, GOES I/M, and HIS instruments. In addition, a linear simultaneous retrieval algorithm is used with aircraft observations to validate the theoretical predictions. Both theoretical and observational results clearly indicate that the accuracy and vertical resolution of the retrieval profile would be improved by high spectral resolution and broad spectral coverage of infrared radiance measurements.

The HIS is found to possess the equivalent of 11 pieces of temperature-and 9 pieces of water vapor-independent precise measurements. The characteristics for temperature include a vertical resolution of 1–6 km with an accuracy of 1 K and for water vapor a vertical resolution of 0.5–3.0 km with an accuracy of 3 K in dewpoint temperature. The HIS is a factor of 2–3 times better in vertical resolution and a factor of 2 times better in accuracy than the GOES 1/M and HIRS/2 filter radiometers.

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Jason A. Otkin, Thomas J. Greenwald, Justin Sieglaff, and Hung-Lung Huang

Abstract

In this study, the accuracy of a simulated infrared brightness temperature dataset derived from a unique large-scale, high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model simulation is evaluated through a comparison with Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) observations. Overall, the analysis revealed that the simulated brightness temperatures realistically depict many of the observed features, although several large discrepancies were also identified. The similar shapes of the simulated and observed probability distributions calculated for each infrared band indicate that the model simulation realistically depicted the cloud morphology and relative proportion of clear and cloudy pixels. A traditional error analysis showed that the largest model errors occurred over central Africa because of a general mismatch in the locations of deep tropical convection and intervening regions of clear skies and low-level cloud cover. A detailed inspection of instantaneous brightness temperature difference (BTD) imagery showed that the modeling system realistically depicted the radiative properties associated with various cloud types. For instance, thin cirrus clouds along the edges of deep tropical convection and within midlatitude cloud shields were characterized by much larger 10.8 − 12.0-μm BTD than optically thicker clouds. Simulated ice clouds were effectively discriminated from liquid clouds and clear pixels by the close relationship between positive 8.7 − 10.8-μm BTD and the coldest 10.8-μm brightness temperatures. Comparison of the simulated and observed BTD probability distributions revealed that the liquid and mixed-phase cloud-top properties were consistent with the observations, whereas the narrower BTD distributions for the colder 10.8-μm brightness temperatures indicated that the microphysics scheme was unable to simulate the full dynamic range of ice clouds.

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Suzanne W. Seemann, Eva E. Borbas, Robert O. Knuteson, Gordon R. Stephenson, and Hung-Lung Huang

Abstract

A global database of infrared (IR) land surface emissivity is introduced to support more accurate retrievals of atmospheric properties such as temperature and moisture profiles from multispectral satellite radiance measurements. Emissivity is derived using input from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) operational land surface emissivity product (MOD11). The baseline fit method, based on a conceptual model developed from laboratory measurements of surface emissivity, is applied to fill in the spectral gaps between the six emissivity wavelengths available in MOD11. The six available MOD11 wavelengths span only three spectral regions (3.8–4, 8.6, and 11–12 μm), while the retrievals of atmospheric temperature and moisture from satellite IR sounder radiances require surface emissivity at higher spectral resolution. Emissivity in the database presented here is available globally at 10 wavelengths (3.6, 4.3, 5.0, 5.8, 7.6, 8.3, 9.3, 10.8, 12.1, and 14.3 μm) with 0.05° spatial resolution. The wavelengths in the database were chosen as hinge points to capture as much of the shape of the higher-resolution emissivity spectra as possible between 3.6 and 14.3 μm. The surface emissivity from this database is applied to the IR regression retrieval of atmospheric moisture profiles using radiances from MODIS, and improvement is shown over retrievals made with the typical assumption of constant emissivity.

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Jun Li, Walter W. Wolf, W. Paul Menzel, Wenjian Zhang, Hung-Lung Huang, and Thomas H. Achtor

Abstract

The International Advanced Television and Infrared Observation Satellite Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS) Processing Package (IAPP) has been developed to retrieve the atmospheric temperature profile, moisture profile, atmospheric total ozone, and other parameters in both clear and cloudy atmospheres from the ATOVS measurements. The algorithm that retrieves these parameters contains four steps: 1) cloud detection and removal, 2) bias adjustment for ATOVS measurements, 3) regression retrieval processes, and 4) a nonlinear iterative physical retrieval. Nine (3 × 3) adjacent High-Resolution Infrared Sounder (HIRS)/3 spot observations, together with Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A observations remapped to the HIRS/3 resolution, are used to retrieve the temperature profile, moisture profile, surface skin temperature, total atmospheric ozone and microwave surface emissivity, and so on. ATOVS profile retrieval results are evaluated by root-mean-square differences with respect to radiosonde observation profiles. The accuracy of the retrieval is about 2.0 K for the temperature at 1-km vertical resolution and 3.0–6.0 K for the dewpoint temperature at 2-km vertical resolution in this study. The IAPP is now available to users worldwide for processing the real-time ATOVS data.

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Hung-Lung Huang, William L. Smith, Jun Li, Paolo Antonelli, Xiangqian Wu, Robert O. Knuteson, Bormin Huang, and Brian J. Osborne

Abstract

This paper describes the theory and application of the minimum local emissivity variance (MLEV) technique for simultaneous retrieval of cloud pressure level and effective spectral emissivity from high-spectral-resolution radiances, for the case of single-layer clouds. This technique, which has become feasible only with the recent development of high-spectral-resolution satellite and airborne instruments, is shown to provide reliable cloud spectral emissivity and pressure level under a wide range of atmospheric conditions. The MLEV algorithm uses a physical approach in which the local variances of spectral cloud emissivity are calculated for a number of assumed or first-guess cloud pressure levels. The optimal solution for the single-layer cloud emissivity spectrum is that having the “minimum local emissivity variance” among the retrieved emissivity spectra associated with different first-guess cloud pressure levels. This is due to the fact that the absorption, reflection, and scattering processes of clouds exhibit relatively limited localized spectral emissivity structure in the infrared 10–15-μm longwave region. In this simulation study it is shown that the MLEV cloud pressure root-mean-square errors for a single level with effective cloud emissivity greater than 0.1 are ∼30, ∼10, and ∼50 hPa, for high (200– 300 hPa), middle (500 hPa), and low (850 hPa) clouds, respectively. The associated cloud emissivity root-mean-square errors in the 900 cm−1 spectral channel are less than 0.05, 0.04, and 0.25 for high, middle, and low clouds, respectively.

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Ping Yang, Zhibo Zhang, George W. Kattawar, Stephen G. Warren, Bryan A. Baum, Hung-Lung Huang, Yong X. Hu, David Winker, and Jean Iaquinta

Abstract

Bullet rosette particles are common in ice clouds, and the bullets may often be hollow. Here the single-scattering properties of randomly oriented hollow bullet rosette ice particles are investigated. A bullet, which is an individual branch of a rosette, is defined as a hexagonal column attached to a hexagonal pyramidal tip. For this study, a hollow structure is included at the end of the columnar part of each bullet branch and the shape of the hollow structure is defined as a hexagonal pyramid. A hollow bullet rosette may have between 2 and 12 branches. An improved geometric optics method is used to solve for the scattering of light in the particle. The primary optical effect of incorporating a hollow end in each of the bullets is to decrease the magnitude of backscattering. In terms of the angular distribution of scattered energy, the hollow bullets increase the scattering phase function values within the forward scattering angle region from 1° to 20° but decrease the phase function values at side- and backscattering angles of 60°–180°. As a result, the presence of hollow bullets tends to increase the asymmetry factor. In addition to the scattering phase function, the other elements of the phase matrix are also discussed. The backscattering depolarization ratios for hollow and solid bullet rosettes are found to be very different. This may have an implication for active remote sensing of ice clouds, such as from polarimetric lidar measurements. In a comparison of solid and hollow bullet rosettes, the effect of the differences on the retrieval of both the ice cloud effective particle size and optical thickness is also discussed. It is found that the presence of hollow bullet rosettes acts to decrease the inferred effective particle size and to increase the optical thickness in comparison with the use of solid bullet rosettes.

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Jun Li, Hung-Lung Huang, Chian-Yi Liu, Ping Yang, Timothy J. Schmit, Heli Wei, Elisabeth Weisz, Li Guan, and W. Paul Menzel

Abstract

The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) measurements from the NASA Earth Observing System Aqua satellite enable global monitoring of the distribution of clouds during day and night. The MODIS is able to provide a high-spatial-resolution (1–5 km) cloud mask, cloud classification mask, cloud-phase mask, cloud-top pressure (CTP), and effective cloud amount during both the daytime and the nighttime, as well as cloud particle size (CPS) and cloud optical thickness (COT) at 0.55 μm during the daytime. The AIRS high-spectral-resolution measurements reveal cloud properties with coarser spatial resolution (13.5 km at nadir). Combined, MODIS and AIRS provide cloud microphysical properties during both the daytime and nighttime. A fast cloudy radiative transfer model for AIRS that accounts for cloud scattering and absorption is described in this paper. One-dimensional variational (1DVAR) and minimum-residual (MR) methods are used to retrieve the CPS and COT from AIRS longwave window region (790–970 cm−1 or 10.31–12.66 μm, and 1050–1130 cm−1 or 8.85–9.52 μm) cloudy radiance measurements. In both 1DVAR and MR procedures, the CTP is derived from the AIRS radiances of carbon dioxide channels while the cloud-phase information is derived from the collocated MODIS 1-km phase mask for AIRS CPS and COT retrievals. In addition, the collocated 1-km MODIS cloud mask refines the AIRS cloud detection in both 1DVAR and MR procedures. The atmospheric temperature profile, moisture profile, and surface skin temperature used in the AIRS cloud retrieval processing are from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts forecast analysis. The results from 1DVAR are compared with the operational MODIS products and MR cloud microphysical property retrieval. A Hurricane Isabel case study shows that 1DVAR retrievals have a high correlation with either the operational MODIS cloud products or MR cloud property retrievals. 1DVAR provides an efficient way for cloud microphysical property retrieval during the daytime, and MR provides the cloud microphysical property retrievals during both the daytime and nighttime.

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