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D. R. Smith, R. S. Weinbeck, I. W. Geer, J. T. Snow, K. M. Ginger, and J. M. Moran

Project ATMOSPHERE, the K–12 educational program of the American Meteorological Society, has been involved in teacher enhancement for four years. Summer workshops for teachers have been a primary component of the AMS K–12 educational initiatives since its inception. During the summer of 1994, Project ATMOSPHERE conducted four workshops: two of the workshops were for teachers in the Atmospheric Education Resource Agent program; another was for K–12 teachers, including one teacher each from Canada and Australia; and the fourth was for faculty members at community colleges or four-year undergraduate institutions. These workshops provide teachers at all levels with instruction on a variety of atmospheric topics, an introduction to the operational and research activities of the meteorological community, and exposure to atmospheric scientists and their facilities. Such workshops provide enriching experiences for educators who teach about weather and climate topics in their science classrooms.

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Kenneth P. Moran, Brooks E. Martner, M. J. Post, Robert A. Kropfli, David C. Welsh, and Kevin B. Widener

A new millimeter-wave cloud radar (MMCR) has been designed to provide detailed, long-term observations of nonprecipitating and weakly precipitating clouds at Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) sites of the Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. Scientific requirements included excellent sensitivity and vertical resolution to detect weak and thin multiple layers of ice and liquid water clouds over the sites and long-term, unattended operations in remote locales. In response to these requirements, the innovative radar design features a vertically pointing, single-polarization, Doppler system operating at 35 GHz (Ka band). It uses a low-peak-power transmitter for long-term reliability and high-gain antenna and pulse-compressed waveforms to maximize sensitivity and resolution. The radar uses the same kind of signal processor as that used in commercial wind profilers. The first MMCR began operations at the CART in northern Oklahoma in late 1996 and has operated continuously there for thousands of hours. It routinely provides remarkably detailed images of the ever-changing cloud structure and kinematics over this densely instrumented site. Examples of the data are presented. The radar measurements will greatly improve quantitative documentation of cloud conditions over the CART sites and will bolster ARM research to understand how clouds impact climate through their effects on radiative transfer. Millimeter-wave radars such as the MMCR also have potential applications in the fields of aviation weather, weather modification, and basic cloud physics research.

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L. M. Bastiaans, D. R. Smith, R. A. McPherson, P. A. Phoebus, J. M. Moran, P. J. Croft, M. J. Ceritelli, G. V. Rao, J. T. Schaefer, F. J. Gadomski, K. A. Kloesel, R. G. Quayle, and J. W. Zeitler

The American Meteorological Society held its Sixth Symposium on Education in conjunction with the 77th Annual Meeting in Long Beach, California. The theme of the symposium was “Atmospheric and Oceanographic Education: Teaching about the Global Environment.” Thirty-eight oral presentations and 37 poster presentations summarized a variety of educational programs or examined educational issues for both the precollege and university levels. There was also a joint session with the Eighth Symposium on Global Change Studies and a special session on “home pages” to promote popular meteorological education. Over 200 people representing a wide spectrum of the Society attended one or more of the sessions in this two-day conference where they increased their awareness of teaching about the global environment.

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P. A. Phoebus, D. R. Smith, R. A. McPherson, M. J. Hayes, J. M. Moran, P. J. Croft, J. T. Snow, E. S. Takle, R. L. Fauquet, L. M. Bastiaans, and J. W. Zeitler

The American Meteorological Society (AMS) held its Seventh Symposium on Education in conjunction with the 78th AMS Annual Meeting. The theme of the symposium was “Atmospheric and Oceanographic Education: Advancing Our Awareness.” Thirty-six oral presentations and 47 poster presentations summarized a variety of educational programs or examined educational issues relevant for both the precollege and university levels.

There were also joint sessions held with the Second Conference on Coastal Atmospheric and Oceanic Prediction and Processes and the Ninth Conference on Interaction of the Sea and Atmosphere, as well as the 10th Symposium on Meteorological Observations and Instruments. Over 200 people representing a wide spectrum of the Society attended one or more of the sessions during this two-day event.

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W. L. Smith, H. E. Rvercomb, H. B. Howell, H. M. Woolf, R. O. Knuteson, R G. Decker, M. J. Lynch, E. R. Westwater, R. G. Strauch, K. P. Moran, B. Stankov, M. J. Falls, J. Jordan, M. Jacobsen, W. F. Dabberdt, R. McBeth, G. Albright, C. Paneitz, G. Wright, P. T. May, and M. T. Decker

During the week 29 October–4 November 1988, a Ground-based Atmospheric Profiling Experiment (GAPEX) was conducted at Denver Stapleton International Airport. The objective of GAPEX was to acquire and analyze atomspheric-temperature and moisture-profile data from state-of-the-art remote sensors. The sensors included a six-spectral-channel, passive Microwave Profiler (MWP), a passive, infrared High-Resolution Interferometer Sounder (HIS) that provides more than 1500 spectral channels, and an active Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS). A Cross-Chain Loran Atmospheric Sounding System (CLASS) was used to provide research-quality in situ thermodynamic observations to verify the accuracy and resolution characteristics of each of the three remote sensors. The first results of the project are presented here to inform the meteorological community of the progress achieved during the GAPEX field phase. These results also serve to demonstrate the excellent prospects for an accurate, continuous thermodynamic profiling system to complement NOAA's forthcoming operational wind profiler.

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W. P. Kustas, D.C. Goodrich, M.S. Moran, S. A. Amer, L. B. Bach, J. H. Blanford, A. Chehbouni, H. Claassen, W. E. Clements, P. C. Doraiswamy, P. Dubois, T. R. Clarke, C. S. T. Daughtry, D. I. Gellman, T. A. Grant, L. E. Hipps, A. R. Huete, K. S. Humes, T. J. Jackson, T. O. Keefer, W. D. Nichols, R. Parry, E. M. Perry, R. T. Pinker, P. J. Pinter Jr., J. Qi, A. C. Riggs, T. J. Schmugge, A. M. Shutko, D. I. Stannard, E. Swiatek, J. D. van Leeuwen, J. van Zyl, A. Vidal, J. Washburne, and M. A. Weltz

Arid and semiarid rangelands comprise a significant portion of the earth's land surface. Yet little is known about the effects of temporal and spatial changes in surface soil moisture on the hydrologic cycle, energy balance, and the feedbacks to the atmosphere via thermal forcing over such environments. Understanding this interrelationship is crucial for evaluating the role of the hydrologic cycle in surface–atmosphere interactions.

This study focuses on the utility of remote sensing to provide measurements of surface soil moisture, surface albedo, vegetation biomass, and temperature at different spatial and temporal scales. Remote-sensing measurements may provide the only practical means of estimating some of the more important factors controlling land surface processes over large areas. Consequently, the use of remotely sensed information in biophysical and geophysical models greatly enhances their ability to compute fluxes at catchment and regional scales on a routine basis. However, model calculations for different climates and ecosystems need verification. This requires that the remotely sensed data and model computations be evaluated with ground-truth data collected at the same areal scales.

The present study (MONSOON 90) attempts to address this issue for semiarid rangelands. The experimental plan included remotely sensed data in the visible, near-infrared, thermal, and microwave wavelengths from ground and aircraft platforms and, when available, from satellites. Collected concurrently were ground measurements of soil moisture and temperature, energy and water fluxes, and profile data in the atmospheric boundary layer in a hydrologically instrumented semiarid rangeland watershed. Field experiments were conducted in 1990 during the dry and wet or “monsoon season” for the southwestern United States. A detailed description of the field campaigns, including measurements and some preliminary results are given.

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