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Ting-Chi Wu, Christopher S. Velden, Sharanya J. Majumdar, Hui Liu, and Jeffrey L. Anderson

Abstract

Recent studies have shown that assimilating enhanced satellite-derived atmospheric motion vectors (AMVs) has improved mesoscale forecast of tropical cyclones (TC) track and intensity. The authors conduct data-denial experiments to understand where the TC analyses and forecasts benefit the most from the enhanced AMV information using an ensemble Kalman filter and the Weather Research and Forecasting Model. The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies at the University of Wisconsin provides enhanced AMV datasets with higher density and temporal resolution using shorter-interval image triplets for the duration of Typhoon Sinlaku and Hurricane Ike (both 2008). These AMV datasets are then spatially and vertically subsetted to create six parallel cycled assimilation-forecast experiments for each TC: all AMVs; AMVs withheld between 100 and 350 hPa (upper layer), between 350 and 700 hPa (middle layer), and between 700 and 999 hPa (lower layer); and only AMVs within (interior) and outside (exterior) 1000-km radius of the TC center. All AMV subsets are found to be useful in some capacity. The interior and upper-layer AMVs are particularly crucial for improving initial TC position, intensity, and the three-dimensional wind structure along with their forecasts. Compared with denying interior or exterior AMVs, withholding AMVs in different tropospheric layers had less impact on TC intensity and size forecasts. The ensemble forecast is less certain (larger spread) in providing accurate TC track, intensity, and size when upper-layer AMVs or interior AMVs are withheld. This information could be useful to potential targeting scenarios, such as activating and focusing satellite rapid-scan operations, and decisions regarding observing system assessments and deployments.

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