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  • Author or Editor: Jerald A. Brotzge x
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Christopher A. Fiebrich, Janet E. Martinez, Jerald A. Brotzge, and Jeffrey B. Basara

Abstract

In 1999, the Oklahoma Mesonet deployed infrared temperature (IRT) sensors at 89 of its environmental monitoring stations. A 3-yr dataset collected since that time provides a unique opportunity to analyze longer-term, continuous, mesoscale observations of skin temperature across a large area. Several limitations of the sensor have been identified and include 1) failure of the calibration equation during the cold season, 2) difficulty in keeping the sensor's lens clean at remote sites, and 3) limited representativeness of local conditions due to the sensor's narrow field of view. Despite these limitations, the Oklahoma Mesonet's skin temperature network provides a wealth of information that can be used to better understand many land–atmosphere interactions. Not only can the observations be used to estimate the partitioning of latent and sensible heat flux, they also provide beneficial “ground truth” estimates to validate remotely sensed estimates of skin temperature. This manuscript describes the IRT sensor, evaluates its performance, and provides analysis of time series data and observed spatial variability across Oklahoma.

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Jerald A. Brotzge, J. Wang, C. D. Thorncroft, E. Joseph, N. Bain, N. Bassill, N. Farruggio, J. M. Freedman, K. Hemker Jr., D. Johnston, E. Kane, S. McKim, S. D. Miller, J. R. Minder, P. Naple, S. Perez, James J. Schwab, M. J. Schwab, and J. Sicker

Abstract

The New York State Mesonet (NYSM) is a network of 126 standard environmental monitoring stations deployed statewide with an average spacing of 27 km. The primary goal of the NYSM is to provide high-quality weather data at high spatial and temporal scales to improve atmospheric monitoring and prediction, especially for extreme weather events. As compared with other statewide networks, the NYSM faced considerable deployment obstacles with New York’s complex terrain, forests, and very rural and urban areas; its wide range of weather extremes; and its harsh winter conditions. To overcome these challenges, the NYSM adopted a number of innovations unique among statewide monitoring systems, including 1) strict adherence to international siting standards and metadata documentation; 2) a hardened system design to facilitate continued operations during extreme, high-impact weather; 3) a station design optimized to monitor winter weather conditions; and 4) a camera installed at every site to aid situational awareness. The network was completed in spring of 2018 and provides data and products to a variety of sectors including weather monitoring and forecasting, emergency management, agriculture, transportation, utilities, and education. This paper focuses on the standard network of the NYSM and reviews the network siting, site configuration, sensors, site communications and power, network operations and maintenance, data quality control, and dissemination. A few example analyses are shown that highlight the benefits of the NYSM.

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