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Jimy Dudhia


A two-dimensional version of the Pennsylvania State University mesoscale model has been applied to Winter Monsoon Experiment data in order to simulate the diurnally occurring convection observed over the South China Sea.

The domain includes a representation of part of Borneo as well as the sea so that the model can simulate the initiation of convection. Also included in the model are parameterizations of mesoscale ice phase and moisture processes and longwave and shortwave radiation with a diurnal cycle. This allows use of the model to test the relative importance of various heating mechanisms to the stratiform cloud deck, which typically occupies several hundred kilometers of the domain. Frank and Cohen's cumulus parameterization scheme is employed to represent vital unresolved vertical transports in the convective area. The major conclusions are:

  1. Ice phase processes are important in determining the level of maximum large-scale heating and vertical motion because there is a strong anvil component. The heating is initiated by a thermodynamic adjustment that takes place after the air leaves the updrafts and is associated with the difference between water and ice saturation.
  2. Melting and evaporation contribute to a 1ocalized mesoscale subsidence in a 50 km region to the rear of the moving convective area. The cooling associated with this almost cancels the cumulus heating in the lower to midtroposphere.
  3. Radiative heating was found to be the main ascent-forcing influence at high levels occupied by the widespread cirrus outflow. Additionally, radiative clear-air cooling helped the convection by continuously destabilizing the troposphere and countering the warming effect of convective updrafts.
  4. The overall structure and development of the system were well simulated, particularly the growth near the coast, and the propagation and decay in the cooler boundary layer further off-shore, but the rainfall may have been underestimated because of the two-dimensional assumptions of the model.
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Jimy Dudhia and Mitchell W. Moncrieff


A nonhydrostatic numerical mesoscale model has been applied to the study of an Oklahoma squall line with initial conditions taken from the Oklahoma–Kansas Preliminary Regional Experiment for STORM-Central (PRE-STORM) data for 7 May 1985. The model reproduced features typical of organized propagating convection occurring during spring and summer in this region, namely a squall line/mesoscale convective system containing strong right-flank convection resembling many documented cases. The alignment and motion of the system change during its development and are determined by the ambient wind at three levels, the steering level of the mature cells, the level of free convection, and the surface layer. Three persistent right-flank cells had a characteristic rightward propagation relative to the mean wind shear vector. Their propagation occurred through successive mergers of cells that had formed at a downdraft outflow convergence front and were similar to the flanking line often seen to the south of strong updraft cores.

The three-dimensional flow structure of the right-flank cells was found to center on a distinct dynamical pressure pattern that itself resulted from the interaction of the midlevel relative flow with the cyclonic vorticity in the updrafts. This low pressure on the updraft's flank extended down to low levels where it was partly responsible for directing the southward surge of downdraft air causing the convergence and flanking line. Other types of supercell propagation are speculated upon in relation to this characteristic dynamical pressure effect evident in the simulation in the neighborhood of cyclonic updrafts.

The updraft cyclonic vorticity was found to strongly influence the domain-scale circulation, particularly in the upper troposphere where it counteracted the anticyclonic production due to divergence and the Coriolis acceleration, leaving net cyclonic vorticity throughout most of the troposphere on a scale of 200 km.

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Stephanie Evan, M. Joan Alexander, and Jimy Dudhia


A 2-day inertia–gravity wave (IGW) was observed in high-resolution radiosonde soundings of horizontal wind and temperature taken during the 2006 Tropical Warm Pool–International Cloud Experiment (TWP-ICE) experiment in the Darwin area. The wave was observed in the stratosphere above Darwin from 28 January to 5 February. A similar wave event is observed in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) operational data. A comparison between the characteristics of the IGW derived with the ECMWF data to the properties of the wave derived with the radiosonde data shows that the ECMWF data capture similar structure for this 2-day wave event but with a larger vertical wavelength.

A reverse ray-tracing method is used to localize the source region. Using ECMWF data to define the atmospheric background conditions and wave properties observed in the soundings, it is found that the 2-day wave event originated from deep convection in the Indonesian region around 20 January.

The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) modeling system is used to complement the ECMWF data to assess the influence of vertical resolution and initial conditions on the wave structure. The model domain is configured as a tropical channel and the ECMWF analyses provide the north/south boundaries and initial conditions. WRF is used with the same horizontal resolution (40 km) as the operational ECMWF in 2006 while using a finer vertical grid spacing than ECMWF. The model is run from 18 January to 11 February to cover the wave life cycle. Different experiments are also performed to determine the sensitivity of the wave structure to cumulus schemes, initial conditions, and vertical resolution. The 2-day wave properties resulting from the WRF experiments are compared to those retrieved from the radiosonde data and from the ECMWF analyses. It is demonstrated that higher vertical resolution would be required for ECMWF to accurately resolve the vertical structure of the wave and its effect on the middle-atmospheric circulation.

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Samson Hagos, L. Ruby Leung, and Jimy Dudhia


To identify the main thermodynamic processes that sustain the Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), an eddy available potential energy budget analysis is performed on a regional model simulation with moisture constrained by observations. The model realistically simulates the two MJO episodes observed during the winter of 2007/08. Analysis of these two cases shows that instabilities and damping associated with variations in diabatic heating and energy transport work in concert to provide the MJO with its observed characteristics. The results are used to construct a simplified paradigm of MJO thermodynamics.

Furthermore, the effect of moisture nudging on the simulation is analyzed to identify the limitations of the model cumulus parameterization. Without moisture nudging, the parameterization fails to provide adequate low-level (upper level) moistening during the early (late) stage of the MJO active phase. The moistening plays a critical role in providing stratiform heating variability that is an important source of eddy available potential energy for the model MJO.

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Hyeyum Hailey Shin, Song-You Hong, Yign Noh, and Jimy Dudhia


Turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is derived from a first-order planetary boundary layer (PBL) parameterization for convective boundary layers: the nonlocal K-profile Yonsei University (YSU) PBL. A parameterization for the TKE equation is developed to calculate TKE based on meteorological profiles given by the YSU PBL model. For this purpose buoyancy- and shear-generation terms are formulated consistently with the YSU scheme—that is, the combination of local, nonlocal, and explicit entrainment fluxes. The vertical transport term is also formulated in a similar fashion. A length scale consistent with the K profile is suggested for parameterization of dissipation.

Single-column model (SCM) simulations are conducted for a period in the second Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment (GEWEX) Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS2) intercomparison case. Results from the SCM simulations are compared with large-eddy simulation (LES) results. The daytime evolution of the vertical structure of TKE matches well with mixed-layer development. The TKE profile is shaped like a typical vertical velocity (w) variance, and its maximum is comparable to that from the LES. By varying the dissipation length from −23% to +13% the TKE maximum is changed from about −15% to +7%. After normalization, the change does not exceed the variability among previous studies. The location of TKE maximum is too low without the effects of the nonlocal TKE transport.

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Greg M. McFarquhar, Henian Zhang, Gerald Heymsfield, Jeffrey B. Halverson, Robbie Hood, Jimy Dudhia, and Frank Marks Jr.


Fine-resolution simulations of Hurricane Erin are conducted using the fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5) to investigate roles of thermodynamic, boundary layer, and microphysical processes on Erin’s structure and evolution. Choice of boundary layer scheme has the biggest impact on simulations, with the minimum surface pressure (P min) averaged over the last 18 h (when Erin is relatively mature) varying by over 20 hPa. Over the same period, coefficients used to describe graupel fall speeds (Vg) affect P min by up to 7 hPa, almost equivalent to the maximum 9-hPa difference between microphysical parameterization schemes; faster Vg and schemes with more hydrometeor categories generally give lower P min. Compared to radar reflectivity factor (Z) observed by the NOAA P-3 lower fuselage radar and the NASA ER-2 Doppler radar (EDOP) in Erin, all simulations overpredict the normalized frequency of occurrence of Z larger than 40 dBZ and underpredict that between 20 and 40 dBZ near the surface; simulations overpredict Z larger than 25 to 30 dBZ and underpredict that between 15 and 25 or 30 dBZ near the melting layer, the upper limit depending on altitude. Brightness temperatures (Tb) computed from modeled fields at 37.1- and 85.5-GHz channels that respond to scattering by graupel-size ice show enhanced scattering, mainly due to graupel, compared to observations. Simulated graupel mixing ratios are about 10 times larger than values observed in other hurricanes. For the control run at 6.5 km averaged over the last 18 simulated hours, Doppler velocities computed from modeled fields (V dop) greater than 5 m s−1 make up 12% of Erin’s simulated area for the base simulation but less than 2% of the observed area. In the eyewall, 5% of model updrafts above 9 km are stronger than 10 m s−1, whereas statistics from other hurricanes show that 5% of updrafts are stronger than only 5 m s−1. Variations in distributions of Z, vertical motion, and graupel mixing ratios between schemes are not sufficient to explain systematic offsets between observations and models. A new iterative condensation scheme, used with the Reisner mixed-phase microphysics scheme, limits unphysical increases of equivalent potential temperature associated with many condensation schemes and reduces the frequency of Z larger than 50 dBZ, but has minimal effect on Z below 50 dBZ, which represent 95% of the modeled hurricane rain area. However, the new scheme changes the Erin simulations in that 95% of the updrafts are weaker than 5 m s−1 and P min is up to 12 hPa higher over the last 18 simulated hours.

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