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Seungkyu K. Hong, Sang-Boom Ryoo, Jinwon Kim, and Sang-Sam Lee

Abstract

This study evaluates the Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) Asian Dust Aerosol Model 2 (ADAM2) for Asian dust events over the dust source regions in northern China during the first half of 2017. Using the observed hourly particulate matter (PM) concentration from the China Ministry of Environmental Protection (MEP) and station weather reports, we find that a threshold value of PM10–PM2.5 = 400 μg m−3 works well in defining an Asian dust event for both the MEP-observed and the ADAM2-simulated data. In northwestern China, ADAM2 underestimates the observed dust days mainly due to underestimation of dust emissions; ADAM2 overestimates the observed Asian dust days over Manchuria due to overestimation of dust emissions. Performance of ADAM2 in estimating Asian dust emissions varies quite systematically according to dominant soil types within each region. The current formulation works well for the Gobi and sand soil types, but substantially overestimates dust emissions for the loess-type soils. This suggests that the ADAM2 model errors are likely to originate from the soil-type-dependent dust emissions formulation and that the formulation for the mixed and loess-type soils needs to be recalibrated. In addition, inability to account for the concentration of fine PMs from anthropogenic sources results in large false-alarm rates over heavily industrialized regions. Direct calculation of PM2.5 in the upcoming ADAM3 model is expected to alleviate the problems related to anthropogenic PMs in identifying Asian dust events.

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