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Jiwen Fan and Alexander Khain

Abstract

Here we elaborate on the deficiencies associated with the theoretical arguments and model simulations in a paper by Grabowski and Morrison (2020, hereafter GM20) that argued convective invigoration by aerosols does not exist. We show that the invigoration can be supported by both accurate theoretical analysis and explicit physics modeling with prognostic supersaturation and aerosols. Negligible invigoration by aerosols via drop freezing in GM20 was explained by a complete compensation between the heating effect from the freezing of extra liquid water and the extra loading effect during droplet ascending. But the reality is that droplet ascending then freezing occur at different locations and time scales, producing complex nonlinear responses that depend on the duration and location of the forcing. Also, this argument neglects the effect of off-loading of precipitating ice particles, increases in condensation during ascending, and riming and deposition accompanying droplet freezing. Regarding the warm-phase invigoration, the quasi-steady assumption for supersaturation as adopted in GM20 makes condensation independent of droplet number and size, therefore an incorrect interpretation of warm-phase invigoration. We illustrate that the quasi-steady assumption is invalid for updrafts of deep convective clouds in clean conditions because of the high acceleration of vertical velocity and the fast depletion of droplets by raindrop formation and accretion. Any assumption imposed on supersaturation, such as quasi-steady approximation and saturation adjustment, leads to errors in the evaluation of aerosol effects on diffusional growth and related buoyancy. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the piggybacking approach they used cannot prove or disprove the convective invigoration.

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Guang J. Zhang, Jiwen Fan, and Kuan-Man Xu
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Damao Zhang, Zhien Wang, Andrew Heymsfield, Jiwen Fan, and Tao Luo

Abstract

Measurements of ice number concentration in clouds are important but still pose problems. The pattern of ice development in stratiform mixed-phase clouds (SMCs) offers an opportunity to use cloud radar reflectivity (Z e) measurements and other cloud properties to retrieve ice number concentrations. To quantify the strong temperature dependencies of ice crystal habits and growth rates, a one-dimensional (1D) ice growth model has been developed to calculate ice diffusional growth and riming growth along ice particle fallout trajectories in SMCs. The radar reflectivity and fallout velocity profiles of ice crystals calculated from the 1D ice growth model are evaluated with the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Climate Research Facility (ACRF) ground-based high-vertical-resolution radar measurements. A method has been developed to retrieve ice number concentrations in SMCs at a specific cloud-top temperature (CTT) and liquid water path (LWP) by combining Z e measurements and 1D ice growth model simulations. The retrieved ice number concentrations in SMCs are evaluated using integrated airborne in situ and remote sensing measurements and three-dimensional cloud-resolving model simulations with a bin microphysical scheme. The statistical evaluations show that the retrieved ice number concentrations in the SMCs are within an uncertainty of a factor of 2.

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

Abstract

Over the past decade, the number of studies that investigate aerosol–cloud interactions has increased considerably. Although tremendous progress has been made to improve the understanding of basic physical mechanisms of aerosol–cloud interactions and reduce their uncertainties in climate forcing, there is still poor understanding of 1) some of the mechanisms that interact with each other over multiple spatial and temporal scales, 2) the feedbacks between microphysical and dynamical processes and between local-scale processes and large-scale circulations, and 3) the significance of cloud–aerosol interactions on weather systems as well as regional and global climate. This review focuses on recent theoretical studies and important mechanisms on aerosol–cloud interactions and discusses the significances of aerosol impacts on radiative forcing and precipitation extremes associated with different cloud systems. The authors summarize the main obstacles preventing the science from making a leap—for example, the lack of concurrent profile measurements of cloud dynamics, microphysics, and aerosols over a wide region on the observation side and the large variability of cloud microphysics parameterizations resulting in a large spread of modeling results on the modeling side. Therefore, large efforts are needed to escalate understanding. Future directions should focus on obtaining concurrent measurements of aerosol properties and cloud microphysical and dynamic properties over a range of temporal and spatial scales collected over typical climate regimes and closure studies, as well as improving understanding and parameterizations of cloud microphysics such as ice nucleation, mixed-phase properties, and hydrometeor size and fall speed.

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Yun Lin, Jiwen Fan, Jong-Hoon Jeong, Yuwei Zhang, Cameron R. Homeyer, and Jingyu Wang

Abstract

Changes in land surface and aerosol characteristics from urbanization can affect dynamic and microphysical properties of severe storms, thus affecting hazardous weather events resulting from these storms such as hail and tornadoes. We examine the joint and individual effects of urban land and anthropogenic aerosols of Kansas City on a severe convective storm observed during the 2015 Plains Elevated Convection At Night (PECAN) field campaign, focusing on storm evolution, convective intensity, and hail characteristics. The simulations are carried out at the cloud-resolving scale (1 km) using a version of WRF-Chem in which the spectral-bin microphysics (SBM) is coupled with the Model for Simulating Aerosol Interactions and Chemistry (MOSAIC). It is found that the urban land effect of Kansas City initiated a much stronger convective cell and the storm got further intensified when interacting with stronger turbulence induced by the urban land. The urban land effect also changed the storm path by diverting the storm toward the city, mainly resulting from enhanced urban land-induced convergence in the urban area and around the urban–rural boundaries. The joint effect of urban land and anthropogenic aerosols enhances occurrences of both severe hail and significant severe hail by ~20% by enhancing hail formation and growth from riming. Overall the urban land effect on convective intensity and hail is relatively larger than the anthropogenic aerosol effect, but the joint effect is more notable than either of the individual effects, emphasizing the importance of considering both effects in evaluating urbanization effects.

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Yunyan Zhang, Stephen A. Klein, Jiwen Fan, Arunchandra S. Chandra, Pavlos Kollias, Shaocheng Xie, and Shuaiqi Tang

Abstract

Based on long-term observations by the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program at its Southern Great Plains site, a new composite case of continental shallow cumulus (ShCu) convection is constructed for large-eddy simulations (LES) and single-column models. The case represents a typical daytime nonprecipitating ShCu whose formation and dissipation are driven by the local atmospheric conditions and land surface forcing and are not influenced by synoptic weather events. The case includes early morning initial profiles of temperature and moisture with a residual layer; diurnally varying sensible and latent heat fluxes, which represent a domain average over different land surface types; simplified large-scale horizontal advective tendencies and subsidence; and horizontal winds with prevailing direction and average speed. Observed composite cloud statistics are provided for model evaluation.

The observed diurnal cycle is well reproduced by LES; however, the cloud amount, liquid water path, and shortwave radiative effect are generally underestimated. LES are compared between simulations with an all-or-nothing bulk microphysics and a spectral bin microphysics. The latter shows improved agreement with observations in the total cloud cover and the amount of clouds with depths greater than 300 m. When compared with radar retrievals of in-cloud air motion, LES produce comparable downdraft vertical velocities, but a larger updraft area, velocity, and updraft mass flux. Both observations and LES show a significantly larger in-cloud downdraft fraction and downdraft mass flux than marine ShCu.

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Yi-Chin Liu, Jiwen Fan, Kuan-Man Xu, and Guang J. Zhang

Abstract

We use 3D cloud-resolving model (CRM) simulations of two mesoscale convective systems at midlatitudes and a simple statistical ensemble method to diagnose the scale dependency of convective momentum transport (CMT) and CMT-related properties and evaluate a parameterization scheme for the convection-induced pressure gradient (CIPG) developed by Gregory et al. Gregory et al. relate CIPG to a constant coefficient multiplied by mass flux and vertical mean wind shear. CRM results show that mass fluxes and CMT exhibit strong scale dependency in temporal evolution and vertical structure. The upgradient–downgradient CMT characteristics for updrafts are generally similar between small and large grid spacings, which is consistent with previous understanding, but they can be different for downdrafts across wide-ranging grid spacings. For the small to medium grid spacings (4–64 km), Gregory et al. reproduce some aspects of CIPG scale dependency except for underestimating the variations of CIPG as grid spacing decreases. However, for large grid spacings (128–512 km), Gregory et al. might even less adequately parameterize CIPG because it omits the contribution from either the nonlinear-shear or the buoyancy forcings. Further diagnosis of CRM results suggests that inclusion of nonlinear-shear forcing in Gregory et al. is needed for the large grid spacings. For the small to median grid spacings, a modified Gregory et al. with the three-updraft approach help better capture the variations of CIPG as grid spacing decreases compared to the single updraft approach. Further, the optimal coefficients used in Gregory et al. seem insensitive to grid spacings, but they might be different for updrafts and downdrafts, for different MCS types, and for zonal and meridional components.

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Yan Yang, Jiwen Fan, L. Ruby Leung, Chun Zhao, Zhanqing Li, and Daniel Rosenfeld

Abstract

A significant reduction in precipitation in the past decades has been documented over many mountain ranges such as those in central and eastern China. Consistent with the increase of air pollution in these regions, it has been argued that the precipitation trend is linked to the aerosol microphysical effect on suppressing warm rain. Rigorous quantitative investigations on the reasons responsible for the precipitation reduction are lacking. In this study, an improved Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model with online coupled chemistry (WRF-Chem) is applied and simulations are conducted at the convection-permitting scale to explore the major mechanisms governing changes in precipitation from orographic clouds in the Mt. Hua area in central China. It is found that anthropogenic pollution contributes to a ~40% reduction of precipitation over Mt. Hua during the 1-month summertime period. The reduction is mainly associated with precipitation events associated with valley–mountain circulation and a mesoscale cold-front event. In this paper (Part I), the mechanism leading to a significant reduction for the cases associated with valley–mountain circulation is scrutinized. It is found that the valley breeze is weakened by aerosols as a result of absorbing aerosol-induced warming aloft and cooling near the surface as a result of aerosol–radiation interaction (ARI). The weakened valley breeze and the reduced water vapor in the valley due to reduced evapotranspiration as a result of surface cooling significantly reduce the transport of water vapor from the valley to mountain and the relative humidity over the mountain, thus suppressing convection and precipitation in the mountain.

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Peter J. Marinescu, Susan C. van den Heever, Max Heikenfeld, Andrew I. Barrett, Christian Barthlott, Corinna Hoose, Jiwen Fan, Ann M. Fridlind, Toshi Matsui, Annette K. Miltenberger, Philip Stier, Benoit Vie, Bethan A. White, and Yuwei Zhang

Abstract

This study presents results from a model intercomparison project, focusing on the range of responses in deep convective cloud updrafts to varying cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentrations among seven state-of-the-art cloud-resolving models. Simulations of scattered convective clouds near Houston, Texas, are conducted, after being initialized with both relatively low and high CCN concentrations. Deep convective updrafts are identified, and trends in the updraft intensity and frequency are assessed. The factors contributing to the vertical velocity tendencies are examined to identify the physical processes associated with the CCN-induced updraft changes. The models show several consistent trends. In general, the changes between the High-CCN and Low-CCN simulations in updraft magnitudes throughout the depth of the troposphere are within 15% for all of the models. All models produce stronger (~+5%–15%) mean updrafts from ~4–7 km above ground level (AGL) in the High-CCN simulations, followed by a waning response up to ~8 km AGL in most of the models. Thermal buoyancy was more sensitive than condensate loading to varying CCN concentrations in most of the models and more impactful in the mean updraft responses. However, there are also differences between the models. The change in the amount of deep convective updrafts varies significantly. Furthermore, approximately half the models demonstrate neutral-to-weaker (~−5% to 0%) updrafts above ~8 km AGL, while the other models show stronger (~+10%) updrafts in the High-CCN simulations. The combination of the CCN-induced impacts on the buoyancy and vertical perturbation pressure gradient terms better explains these middle- and upper-tropospheric updraft trends than the buoyancy terms alone.

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