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Kevin Hamilton

The problem of formulating optimal-regulation strategies for commercial fisheries is complicated by the large interannual fluctuations often observed in the numbers and locations of various fish populations. Much of the interannual variance seen in particular cases can be attributed to the effects of environmental variability. The article reviews three examples of research showing that environmental variations can have important systematic effects on fish stocks. The three examples are all from North America and have been chosen to illustrate the biological significance of meteorological and oceanographic phenomena on a wide range of space and time scales.

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Kevin Hamilton

This paper discusses observations of the winds in the tropical stratosphere taken before the advent of regular operational balloon soundings in this region. These observations are at least broadly consistent with modern measurements, in the sense that they show that the winds in the tropical stratosphere have been undergoing some strong interannual variations over the last century. However, the available data appear to be too sparse to construct a detailed chronology of the quasi-biennial oscillation before about 1950.

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Kevin Hamilton

The unusual spring and summer weather of the year 1816 in central Canada is discussed using Canadian newspaper accounts together with manuscript records from early amateur weather observers. Many of the spectacular meteorological events of this year that are known to have affected the northeast United States have close parallels in central Canada. The available instrumental records suggest that the summer of 1816 in central Canada was colder than any that has been observed in more-recent times.

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Kevin Hamilton and Rolando R. Garcia

This paper reports on an investigation into the chronology of El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events during the period from the arrival of Europeans in Peru in 1531 until the year 1841 when conventional barometric data became available in the tropical regions. A number of probable ENSO events can be dated from anecdotal reports of significant rainfall in the coastal desert of northern Peru. In many of the years with anomalous Peruvian rainfall it is also possible to use various types of proxy data to identify aspects of the global teleconnection patterns usually associated with tropical ENSO events.

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