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Biao Geng, Kunio Yoneyama, and Ryuichi Shirooka


This study examined the synoptic evolution and internal structure of a monsoon trough in association with the deep equatorward intrusion of a midlatitude upper trough in the western North Pacific Ocean in June 2008. The study was based on data from routine synoptic observations and intensive observations conducted on board the research vessel Mirai at 12°N, 135°E. The monsoon trough was first observed to extend southeastward from the center of a tropical depression. It then moved northward, with its eastern edge moving faster and approaching a surface low pressure cell induced by the upper trough. The distinct northward migration caused the monsoon trough to become oriented from the southwest to the northeast. The monsoon trough merged with the surface low pressure cell and extended broadly northeastward. The passage of the monsoon trough over the Mirai was accompanied by lower pressure, higher air and sea surface temperature, and minimal rainfall. The monsoon trough extended upward to nearly 500 hPa and sloped southward with height. It was overlain by northwesterly winds, negative geopotential height and temperature anomalies, and extremely dry air in the upper troposphere. Precipitation systems were weak and scattered near the monsoon trough but were intense and extensive south of the surface monsoon trough, where intense low-level convergence and upper-level divergence caused deep and vigorous upward motion. It appears that the upper trough exerted important impacts on the development of both the monsoon trough and associated precipitation, which are discussed according to the observational results.

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Satoru Yokoi, Shuichi Mori, Masaki Katsumata, Biao Geng, Kazuaki Yasunaga, Fadli Syamsudin, Nurhayati, and Kunio Yoneyama


This study analyzes data obtained by intensive observation during a pilot field campaign of the Years of the Maritime Continent Project (Pre-YMC) to investigate the diurnal cycle of precipitation in the western coastal area of Sumatra Island. The diurnal cycle during the campaign period (November–December 2015) is found to have a number of similarities with statistical behavior of the diurnal cycle as revealed by previous studies, such as afternoon precipitation over land, nighttime offshore migration of the precipitation zone, and dependency on Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) phase. Composite analyses of radiosonde soundings from the Research Vessel (R/V) Mirai, deployed about 50 km off the coast, demonstrate that the lower free troposphere starts cooling in late afternoon (a couple of hours earlier than the cooling in the boundary layer), making the lower troposphere more unstable just before precipitation starts to increase. As the nighttime offshore precipitation tends to be more vigorous on days when the cooling in the lower free troposphere is larger, it is possible that the destabilization due to the cooling contributes to the offshore migration of the precipitation zone via enhancement of convective activity. Comparison of potential temperature and water vapor mixing ratio tendencies suggests that this cooling is substantially due to vertical advection by an ascent motion, which is possibly a component of shallow gravity waves. These results support the idea that gravity waves emanating from convective systems over land play a significant role in the offshore migration of the precipitation zone.

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Kazuaki Yasunaga, Kunio Yoneyama, Qoosaku Moteki, Mikiko Fujita, Yukari N. Takayabu, Junko Suzuki, Tomoki Ushiyama, and Brian Mapes


A field observational campaign [i.e., the Mirai Indian Ocean cruise for the Study of the MJO-convection Onset (MISMO)] was conducted over the central equatorial Indian Ocean in October–December 2006. During MISMO, large-scale organized convection associated with a weak Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) broke out, and some other notable variations were observed.

Water vapor and precipitation data show a prominent 3–4-day-period cycle associated with meridional wind υ variations. Filtered υ anomalies at midlevels in reanalysis data [i.e., the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA) Climate Data Assimilation System (JCDAS)] show westward phase velocities, and the structure is consistent with mixed Rossby–gravity waves. Estimated equivalent depths are a few tens of meters, typical of convectively coupled waves. In the more rainy part of MISMO (16–26 November), the 3–4-day waves were coherent through the lower and midtroposphere, while in the less active early November period midlevel υ fluctuations appear less connected to those at the surface.

SST diurnal variations were enhanced in light-wind and clear conditions. These coincided with westerly anomalies in prominent 6–8-day zonal wind variations with a deep nearly barotropic structure through the troposphere. Westward propagation and structure of time-filtered winds suggest n = 1 equatorial Rossby waves, but with estimated equivalent depth greater than is common for convectively coupled waves, although sheared background flow complicates the estimation somewhat.

An ensemble reanalysis [i.e., the AGCM for the Earth Simulator (AFES) Local Ensemble Transform Kalman Filter (LETKF) Experimental Reanalysis (ALERA)] shows enhanced spread among the ensemble members in the zonal confluence phase of these deep Rossby waves, suggesting that assimilating them excites rapidly growing differences among ensemble members.

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