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  • Author or Editor: Margaret A. LeMone x
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Margaret A. LeMone, Robert L. Grossman, Fei Chen, Kyoko Ikeda, and David Yates

Abstract

Data from the April–May 1997 Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES-97) are used to illustrate a holistic way to select an averaging interval for comparing horizontal variations in sensible heat (H) and latent heat (LE) fluxes from low-level aircraft flights to those from land surface models (LSMs). The ideal filter can be defined by considering the degree to which filtered aircraft fluxes 1) replicate the observed pattern followed by H and LE at the surface, 2) are statically robust, and 3) retain the heterogeneity to be modeled. Spatial variability and temporal variability are computed for different filtering wavelengths to assess spatial variability sacrificed by filtering and how much temporal variability can be eliminated; ideally, spatial variability should approach or exceed temporal variability. The surface pattern to be replicated is a negative slope when H is plotted against LE for a given time. This is required for surface energy balance if H or LE vary horizontally more than their sum, R nG, the difference between the net radiation and heat flux into the ground. Statistical confidence is estimated using conventional techniques. The same factors can be used to examine comparisons already done, or to estimate the number of flight legs needed to measure heterogeneity at a given scale in future field programs.

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Fei Chen, David N. Yates, Haruyasu Nagai, Margaret A. LeMone, Kyoko Ikeda, and Robert L. Grossman

Abstract

Land surface heterogeneity over an area of 71 km × 74 km in the lower Walnut River watershed, Kansas, was investigated using models and measurements from the 1997 Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES-97) field experiment. As an alternative approach for studying heterogeneity, a multiscale atmospheric and surface dataset (1, 5, and 10 km) was developed, which was used to drive three land surface models, in uncoupled 1D mode, to simulate the evolution of surface heat fluxes and soil moisture for approximately a 1-month period (16 April–22 May 1997) during which the natural grassland experienced a rapid greening. Model validation using both surface and aircraft measurements showed that these modeled flux maps have reasonable skill in capturing the observed surface heterogeneity related to land-use cover and soil moisture. The results highlight the significance of rapid greening of grassland in shaping the surface heterogeneity for the area investigated. The treatment of soil hydraulic properties and canopy resistance in these land surface models appears to cause the majority of differences among their results. Several factors contributing to the discrepancy between modeled and aircraft measured heat fluxes in relation to their respective time–space integration were examined. When land surface heterogeneity is pronounced, modeled heat fluxes agree better with those measured by aircraft in terms of spatial variability along flight legs. When compared to Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer/Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (AVHRR/NDVI) data, it is demonstrated that modeled heat flux maps with different spatial resolutions can be utilized to study their scaling properties at local or regional scales.

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Margaret A. LeMone, Fei Chen, Joseph G. Alfieri, Mukul Tewari, Bart Geerts, Qun Miao, Robert L. Grossman, and Richard L. Coulter

Abstract

Analyses of daytime fair-weather aircraft and surface-flux tower data from the May–June 2002 International H2O Project (IHOP_2002) and the April–May 1997 Cooperative Atmosphere Surface Exchange Study (CASES-97) are used to document the role of vegetation, soil moisture, and terrain in determining the horizontal variability of latent heat LE and sensible heat H along a 46-km flight track in southeast Kansas. Combining the two field experiments clearly reveals the strong influence of vegetation cover, with H maxima over sparse/dormant vegetation, and H minima over green vegetation; and, to a lesser extent, LE maxima over green vegetation, and LE minima over sparse/dormant vegetation. If the small number of cases is producing the correct trend, other effects of vegetation and the impact of soil moisture emerge through examining the slope ΔxyLE/Δxy H for the best-fit straight line for plots of time-averaged LE as a function of time-averaged H over the area. Based on the surface energy balance, H + LE = R netG sfc, where R net is the net radiation and G sfc is the flux into the soil; R netG sfc ∼ constant over the area implies an approximately −1 slope. Right after rainfall, H and LE vary too little horizontally to define a slope. After sufficient drying to produce enough horizontal variation to define a slope, a steep (∼−2) slope emerges. The slope becomes shallower and better defined with time as H and LE horizontal variability increases. Similarly, the slope becomes more negative with moister soils. In addition, the slope can change with time of day due to phase differences in H and LE. These trends are based on land surface model (LSM) runs and observations collected under nearly clear skies; the vegetation is unstressed for the days examined. LSM runs suggest terrain may also play a role, but observational support is weak.

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