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Zaizhong Ma, Lars Peter Riishøjgaard, Michiko Masutani, John S. Woollen, and George D. Emmitt


The Global Wind Observing Sounder (GWOS) concept, which has been developed as a hypothetical space-based hybrid wind lidar system by NASA in response to the 2007 National Research Council (NRC) decadal survey, is expected to provide global wind profile observations with high vertical resolution, precision, and accuracy when realized. The assimilation of Doppler wind lidar (DWL) observations anticipated from the GWOS is being conducted as a series of observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) at the Joint Center for Satellite Data Assimilation (JCSDA). A companion paper (Riishøjgaard et al.) describes the simulation of this lidar wind data and evaluates the impact on global numerical weather prediction (NWP) of the baseline GWOS using a four-telescope configuration to provide independent line-of-sight wind speeds, while this paper sets out to assess the NWP impact of GWOS equipped with alternative paired configurations of telescopes. The National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) analysis system and the Global Forecast System (GFS) were used, at a resolution of T382 with 64 layers, as the assimilation system and the forecast model, respectively, in these lidar OSSEs. A set of 45-day assimilation and forecast experiments from 2 July to 15 August 2005 was set up and executed.

In this OSSE study, a control simulation utilizing all of the data types assimilated in the operational GSI/GFS system was compared to three OSSE simulations that added lidar wind data from the different configurations of telescopes (one-, two-, and four-look configurations). First, the root-mean-square error (RMSE) of wind analysis is compared against the nature run. A significant reduction of the stratospheric RMSE of wind analyses is found for all latitudes when lidar wind profiles are used in the assimilation system. The forecast impacts of lidar data on the wind and mass forecasts are also presented. In addition, the anomaly correlations (AC) of geopotential height forecasts at 500 hPa were evaluated to compare the control and different GWOS telescope configuration experiments. The results show that the assimilation of lidar data from the GWOS (one, two, or four looks) can improve the NCEP GFS wind and mass field forecasts. The addition of the simulated lidar wind observations leads to a statistically significant increase in AC scores.

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Sid-Ahmed Boukabara, Isaac Moradi, Robert Atlas, Sean P. F. Casey, Lidia Cucurull, Ross N. Hoffman, Kayo Ide, V. Krishna Kumar, Ruifang Li, Zhenglong Li, Michiko Masutani, Narges Shahroudi, Jack Woollen, and Yan Zhou


A modular extensible framework for conducting observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs) has been developed with the goals of 1) supporting decision-makers with quantitative assessments of proposed observing systems investments, 2) supporting readiness for new sensors, 3) enhancing collaboration across the community by making the most up-to-date OSSE components accessible, and 4) advancing the theory and practical application of OSSEs. This first implementation, the Community Global OSSE Package (CGOP), is for short- to medium-range global numerical weather prediction applications. The CGOP is based on a new mesoscale global nature run produced by NASA using the 7-km cubed sphere version of the Goddard Earth Observing System, version 5 (GEOS-5), atmospheric general circulation model and the January 2015 operational version of the NOAA global data assimilation (DA) system. CGOP includes procedures to simulate the full suite of observing systems used operationally in the global DA system, including conventional in situ, satellite-based radiance, and radio occultation observations. The methodology of adding a new proposed observation type is documented and illustrated with examples of current interest. The CGOP is designed to evolve, both to improve its realism and to keep pace with the advance of operational systems.

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