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  • Author or Editor: Paul M. James x
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Ellis Remsberg, James M. Russell III, Larry L. Gordley, John C. Gille, and Paul L. Bailey


The LIMS experiment on Nimbus 7 has provided new results on the stratospheric water vapor distribution. The data show 1) a latitudinal gradient with mixing ratios that increase by a factor of 2 from equator to ±60 degrees at 50 mb, 2) most of the time there is a fairly uniform mixing ratio of 5 ppmv at high latitudes, but more variation exists during winter, 3) a well-developed hygropause at low to midlatitudes of the lower stratosphere 4) a source region of water vapor in the upper stratosphere to lower mesosphere that is consistent with methane oxidation chemistry, at least within the uncertainties of the data, 5) an apparent zonal mean H2O distribution that is consistent with the circulation proposed by Brewer in 1949, and 6) a zonal mean distribution in the lower stratosphere that is consistent with the idea of quasi-isentropic transport by eddies in the meridional direction. Limits to the use of the data in the refinement of our understanding of the stratospheric water vapor budget are noted.

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Kerri A. Pratt, Andrew J. Heymsfield, Cynthia H. Twohy, Shane M. Murphy, Paul J. DeMott, James G. Hudson, R. Subramanian, Zhien Wang, John H. Seinfeld, and Kimberly A. Prather


During the Ice in Clouds Experiment–Layer Clouds (ICE-L), aged biomass-burning particles were identified within two orographic wave cloud regions over Wyoming using single-particle mass spectrometry and electron microscopy. Using a suite of instrumentation, particle chemistry was characterized in tandem with cloud microphysics. The aged biomass-burning particles comprised ∼30%–40% by number of the 0.1–1.0-μm clear-air particles and were composed of potassium, organic carbon, elemental carbon, and sulfate. Aerosol mass spectrometry measurements suggested these cloud-processed particles were predominantly sulfate by mass. The first cloud region sampled was characterized by primarily homogeneously nucleated ice particles formed at temperatures near −40°C. The second cloud period was characterized by high cloud droplet concentrations (∼150–300 cm−3) and lower heterogeneously nucleated ice concentrations (7–18 L−1) at cloud temperatures of −24° to −25°C. As expected for the observed particle chemistry and dynamics of the observed wave clouds, few significant differences were observed between the clear-air particles and cloud residues. However, suggestive of a possible heterogeneous nucleation mechanism within the first cloud region, ice residues showed enrichments in the number fractions of soot and mass fractions of black carbon, measured by a single-particle mass spectrometer and a single-particle soot photometer, respectively. In addition, enrichment of biomass-burning particles internally mixed with oxalic acid in both the homogeneously nucleated ice and cloud droplets compared to clear air suggests either preferential activation as cloud condensation nuclei or aqueous phase cloud processing.

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