Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for :

  • Author or Editor: R. Wood x
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Rex C. Wood, Richard K. Olson, and Andrew R. McFarland

Abstract

The air ejector filter sampler is a balloon-borne device designed to collect particulate matter from very large volumes (105 ft2) of stratospheric air at altitudes between 50,000 and 130,000 ft. This equipment utilize an ejector pump to pull air through 2 ft2 of Institute of Paper Chemistry (IPC) #1478 filter paper at rates on the order of 1000 cfm. Use of this unit has permitted an extension of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission operational sampling program to higher attitudes than previously allowed by battery powered electro-mechanical systems. Performance of the sampler during a successful operational series conducted in 1965 by the U.S. Air Force at San Angelo, Texas, and Eielson AFB, Alaska, has confirmed pre-program estimates of system reliability.

Full access
S. E. Nichol, G. Pfister, G. E. Bodeker, R. L. McKenzie, S. W. Wood, and G. Bernhard

Abstract

To gauge the impact of clouds on erythemal (sunburn causing) UV irradiances under different surface albedo conditions, UV measurements from two Antarctic sites (McMurdo and South Pole Stations) and a midlatitude site (Lauder, New Zealand) are examined. The surface albedo at South Pole remains high throughout the year, at McMurdo it has a strong annual cycle, and at Lauder it is low throughout the year. The measurements at each site are divided into clear and cloudy subsets and are compared with modeled clear-sky irradiances to assess the attenuation of UV by clouds. A radiative transfer model is also used to interpret the observations. Results show increasing attenuation of UV with increasing cloud optical depth, but a high surface albedo can moderate this attenuation as a result of multiple scattering between the surface and cloud base. This effect is of particular importance at high latitudes where snow may be present during the summer months. There is also a tendency toward greater cloud attenuation with increasing solar zenith angle.

Full access
Andrew Heymsfield, Martina Krämer, Norman B. Wood, Andrew Gettelman, Paul R. Field, and Guosheng Liu

Abstract

Cloud ice microphysical properties measured or estimated from in situ aircraft observations are compared with global climate models and satellite active remote sensor retrievals. Two large datasets, with direct measurements of the ice water content (IWC) and encompassing data from polar to tropical regions, are combined to yield a large database of in situ measurements. The intention of this study is to identify strengths and weaknesses of the various methods used to derive ice cloud microphysical properties. The in situ data are measured with total water hygrometers, condensed water probes, and particle spectrometers. Data from polar, midlatitude, and tropical locations are included. The satellite data are retrieved from CloudSat/CALIPSO [the CloudSat Ice Cloud Property Product (2C-ICE) and 2C-SNOW-PROFILE] and Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) Level2A. Although the 2C-ICE retrieval is for IWC, a method to use the IWC to get snowfall rates S is developed. The GPM retrievals are for snowfall rate only. Model results are derived using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) and the Met Office Unified Model [Global Atmosphere 7 (GA7)]. The retrievals and model results are related to the in situ observations using temperature and are partitioned by geographical region. Specific variables compared between the in situ observations, models, and retrievals are the IWC and S. Satellite-retrieved IWCs are reasonably close in value to the in situ observations, whereas the models’ values are relatively low by comparison. Differences between the in situ IWCs and those from the other methods are compounded when S is considered, leading to model snowfall rates that are considerably lower than those derived from the in situ data. Anomalous trends with temperature are noted in some instances.

Full access
J. Rémillard, A. M. Fridlind, A. S. Ackerman, G. Tselioudis, P. Kollias, D. B. Mechem, H. E. Chandler, E. Luke, R. Wood, M. K. Witte, P. Y. Chuang, and J. K. Ayers

Abstract

A case study of persistent stratocumulus over the Azores is simulated using two independent large-eddy simulation (LES) models with bin microphysics, and forward-simulated cloud radar Doppler moments and spectra are compared with observations. Neither model is able to reproduce the monotonic increase of downward mean Doppler velocity with increasing reflectivity that is observed under a variety of conditions, but for differing reasons. To a varying degree, both models also exhibit a tendency to produce too many of the largest droplets, leading to excessive skewness in Doppler velocity distributions, especially below cloud base. Excessive skewness appears to be associated with an insufficiently sharp reduction in droplet number concentration at diameters larger than ~200 μm, where a pronounced shoulder is found for in situ observations and a sharp reduction in reflectivity size distribution is associated with relatively narrow observed Doppler spectra. Effectively using LES with bin microphysics to study drizzle formation and evolution in cloud Doppler radar data evidently requires reducing numerical diffusivity in the treatment of the stochastic collection equation; if that is accomplished sufficiently to reproduce typical spectra, progress toward understanding drizzle processes is likely.

Full access