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J. Y. Wang and S. C. Wang

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Hao Wang and Eugene S. Takle

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A neutral boundary layer nonhydrostatic numerical model is used to determine the characteristics of shelterbelt effects on mean wind direction and to study the processing causing wind rotation when air passes through a shelterbelt. The model uses a turbulence scheme that includes prognostic equations for turbulence kinetic energy and a master length scale proposed by Mellor and Yamada. The simulated results are in quantitative agreement with Nord's field measurements. The spatial variation of wind rotation and its dependence on incident angle and shelterbelt porosity is analysed. Dynamic processes of the wind rotation and its interactions with drag force and pressure perturbation are also discussed. It is concluded that shear of wind direction should be considered, along with shear of speed, in determining turbulent fluxes in the vicinity of a shelterbelt.

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Hao Wang and E. S. Takle

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The authors report results of a numerical model used to simulate wind and turbulence fields for porous, living shelterbelts with seven different cross-sectional shapes. The simulations are consistent with results of Woodruff and Zingg whose wind-tunnel study demonstrated that all shelterbelts with very different shapes have nearly identical reduction of wind and turbulence. The simulations also showed that the pressure-loss (resistance) coefficient for smooth-shaped or streamlined shelterbelts is significantly smaller than that for rectangle-shaped or triangle-shaped shelterbelts with a windward vertical side. However, the shelter effects are not proportional to the pressure-loss coefficient (drag). Analysis of the momentum budget demonstrated that in the near lee and in the far lee, both vertical advection and pressure gradient have opposite roles in the recovery of wind speed. This behavior, combined with differences in permeability, is the likely cause of reduced sensitivity of shelter effects to shelterbelt shape.

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Tao Wang, K. S. Lam, Agatha S. Y. Lee, S. W. Pang, and W. S. Tsui

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As in many metropolitan areas around the world, air pollution in Hong Kong is an increasing concern. In this paper the authors present the observations of ozone (O3) pollution episodes made at a nonurban coastal location in Hong Kong. Four O3 episodes were observed in 1994, during which hourly averaged O3 concentrations exceeded 100 ppbv and in one case reached 162 ppbv. Recirculation of urban air caused by the reversal of surface winds was found to be an important mechanism for transporting the “aged” urban plumes to the monitoring site. Concurrent measurements of CO, SO2, NO, and O3 provided an insight to the chemical characteristics of the air masses, and the chemical data appeared to suggest that the high levels of O3 during the episodes were produced in the urban plumes that were mainly characteristic of vehicle emissions. The relationship between O3 and CO in two of the episodes may be represented by a linear approximation, and a nonlinear relationship between O3 and CO was found in another. Ozone levels observed at the nonurban site were higher than those at two urban locations.

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Ting-I. Wang, K. B. Earnshaw, and R. S. Lawrence

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Path-averaged terminal velocity distribution of raindrops is determined from the temporal covariance function of signals from two vertically spaced linear optical detectors that respond to raindrop-induced amplitude scintillations of a projected laser beam. The known monotonic relationship between drop size and terminal velocity permits the measured velocity distribution to be converted to path-averaged drop-size distribution and, in turn, to rain rate. The large capture area of the measurements over a 200 m path allows drop-size distribution to be measured in short time intervals. We present measurements of path-averaged rain rate and raindrop size distribution made at 42 s intervals. The terminal velocity distribution during a storm that contained a mixture of rain and hail clearly shows the two-component nature of the precipitation.

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Peter S. Ray, David P. Jorgensen, and Sue-Lee Wang

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Airborne Doppler radar can collect data on target storms that are quite widely dispersed. However, the relatively long time required to sample an individual storm in detail, particularly with a single aircraft, and the amplification of the statistical uncertainty in the radial velocity estimates when Cartesian wind components are derived, suggests that errors in wind fields derived from airborne Doppler radar measurements would exceed those from a ground based radar network which was better located to observe the same storm. Error distributions for two analysis methods (termed Overdetermined and Direct methods) are given and discussed for various flight configurations. Both methods are applied to data collected on a sea breeze induced storm that occurred in western Florida on 28 July 1982. Application of the direct solution, which does not use the continuity equation, and the overdetermined dual-Doppler method, which requires the use of the continuity equation, resulted in similar fields. Since the magnitude of all errors are unknown and the response of each method to errors is different, it is difficult to assess overall which analysis performs better; indeed each might be expected to perform best in different parts of the analysis domain. A flexible collection strategy can be followed with different analysis methods to optimize the quality of resulting synthesized wind fields.

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Ting-I. Wang, R. Lataitis, R. S. Lawrence, and G. R. Ochs

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Prototype Laser Weather Identifier (LWI) systems designed to detect fog, rain and snow were tested for several months at Stapleton International Airport in Denver, and at the AFGL Weather Test Facility at Otis Air Force Base, Massachusetts. We present a detailed analysis of the performance of these systems, compared with human weather observations and tipping-bucket raingages, and suggest modifications for future operational instruments.

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K. B. Earnshaw, Ting-I. Wang, R. S. Lawrence, and R. G. Greunke

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The possibility of identifying weather through the observation of forward scatter of a laser beam has been investigated. Preliminary observations with a prototype instrument suggest that it is possible to distinguish clear air, rain, snow, hail and fog using laser weather identification. After additional measurements are made in various weather conditions, it should be practical to design a simple automatic instrument to provide such information.

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G. S. Kent, U. O. Farrukh, P. H. Wang, and A. Deepak

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The SAGE-I and SAM-II satellite sensors were designed to measure, with global coverage, the 1 μm extinction produced by the stratospheric aerosol. In the absence of high altitude clouds, similar measurements may be made for the free tropospheric aerosol. Median extinction values at middle and high latitudes in the Northern Hemisphere, for altitudes between 5 and 10 km, are found to be one-half to one order of magnitude greater than values at corresponding latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. In addition, a seasonal increase by a factor of 1.5–2 was observed in both hemispheres, in 1979–80, in local spring and summer. Following major volcanic eruptions, a long-lived enhancement of the aerosol extinction is observed for altitudes above 5 km.

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Mu-King Tsay, Ting-I. Wang, R. S. Lawrence, G. R. Ochs, and R. B. Fritz

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In a cooperative field study of the planetary boundary layer, three optical wind sensors were placed around a 300 m meteorological tower in a 450 m equilateral triangle 3–4 m above the terrain. It was found that the convergence measured by the three-sensor system correlates well with in situ measurements of vertical wind by anemometers located on the tower at heights up to 300 m during the occurrence of thermal plumes. By analyzing the correlation between the optically measured convergence and the vertical wind measurements made on the tower, the inversion layer, if below the top of the tower, can usually be located in the early morning when thermal plumes are active. The space-averaged horizontal wind vectors measured by the optical system have good, though not perfect, agreement with the tower measurements at the lowest layer (10 m above the ground), and with the measurements of a nearby network of surface anemometers. A comparison of the optically measured convergence with the direction of the surface horizontal wind indicates some effect of irregular terrain.

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