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Qin Xu, Ting Lei, and Shouting Gao

Abstract

Maximum nonmodal growths of total perturbation energy are computed for symmetric perturbations constructed from the normal modes presented in Part I. The results show that the maximum nonmodal growths are larger than the energy growth produced by any single normal mode for a give optimization time, and this is simply because the normal modes are nonorthogonal (measured by the inner product associated with the total perturbation energy norm). It is shown that the maximum nonmodal growths are produced mainly by paired modes, and this can be explained by the fact that the streamfunction component modes are partially orthogonal between different pairs and parallel within each pair in the streamfunction subspace. When the optimization time is very short (compared with the inverse Coriolis parameter), the nonmodal growth is produced mainly by the paired fastest propagating modes. When the optimization time is not short, the maximum nonmodal growth is produced almost solely by the paired slowest propagating modes and the growth can be very large for a wide range of optimization time if the parameter point is near the boundary and outside the unstable region. If the parameter point is near the boundary but inside the unstable region, the paired slowest propagating modes can contribute significantly to the energy growth before the fastest growing mode becomes the dominant component.

The maximum nonmodal growths produced by paired modes are derived analytically. The analytical solutions compare well with the numerical results obtained in the truncated normal mode space. The analytical solutions reveal the basic mechanisms for four types of maximum nonmodal energy growths: the PP1 and PP2 nonmodal growths produced by paired propagating modes and the GD1 and GD2 nonmodal growths produced by paired growing and decaying modes. The PP1 growth is characterized by the increase of the cross-band kinetic energy that excessively offsets the decrease of the along-band kinetic and buoyancy energy. The situation is opposite for the PP2 growth. The GD1 (or GD2) growth is characterized by the reduction of the initial cross-band kinetic energy (or initial along-band kinetic and buoyancy energy) due to the inclusion of the decaying mode.

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