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  • Author or Editor: Virendra Ghate x
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Virendra P. Ghate and Pavlos Kollias


The Amazon plays an important role in the global energy and hydrological budgets. The precipitation during the dry season (June–September) plays a critical role in maintaining the extent of the rain forest. The deployment of the first Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Mobile Facility (AMF-1) in the context of the Green Ocean Amazon (GOAmazon) field campaign at Manacapuru, Brazil, provided comprehensive measurements of surface, cloud, precipitation, radiation, and thermodynamic properties for two complete dry seasons (2014 and 2015). The precipitation events occurring during the nighttime were associated with propagating storm systems (nonlocal effects), while the daytime precipitation events were primarily a result of local land–atmosphere interactions. During the two dry seasons, precipitation was recorded at the surface on 106 days (43%) from 158 rain events with 82 daytime precipitation events occurring on 64 days (60.37%). Detailed comparisons between the diurnal cycles of surface and profile properties between days with and without daytime precipitation suggested the increased moisture at low and midlevels to be responsible for lowering the lifting condensation level, reducing convective inhibition and entrainment, and thus triggering the transition from shallow to deep convection. Although the monthly accumulated rainfall decreased during the progression of the dry season, the contribution of daytime precipitation to it increased, suggesting the decrease to be mainly due to reduction in propagating squall lines. The control of daytime precipitation during the dry season on large-scale moisture advection above the boundary layer and the total rainfall on propagating squall lines suggests that coarse-resolution models should be able to accurately simulate the dry season precipitation over the Amazon basin.

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Cheng Tao, Yunyan Zhang, Qi Tang, Hsi-Yen Ma, Virendra P. Ghate, Shuaiqi Tang, Shaocheng Xie, and Joseph A. Santanello


Using the 9-yr warm-season observations at the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Southern Great Plains site, we assess the land–atmosphere (LA) coupling in the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) and two climate models: hindcasts with the Community Atmosphere Model version 5.1 by Cloud-Associated Parameterizations Testbed (CAM5-CAPT) and nudged runs with the Energy Exascale Earth System Model Atmosphere Model version 1 Regionally Refined Model (EAMv1-RRM). We focus on three local convective regimes and diagnose model behaviors using the local coupling metrics. NARR agrees well with observations except a slightly warmer and drier surface with higher downwelling shortwave radiation and lower evaporative fraction. On clear-sky days, it shows warmer and drier early-morning conditions in both models with significant underestimates in surface evaporation by EAMv1-RRM. On the majority of the ARM-observed shallow cumulus days, there is no or little low-level clouds in either model. When captured in models, the simulated shallow cumulus shows much less cloud fraction and lower cloud bases than observed. On the days with late-afternoon deep convection, models tend to present a stable early-morning lower atmosphere more frequently than the observations, suggesting that the deep convection is triggered more often by elevated instabilities. Generally, CAM5-CAPT can reproduce the local LA coupling processes to some extent due to the constrained early-morning conditions and large-scale winds. EAMv1-RRM exhibits large precipitation deficits and warm and dry biases toward mid-to-late summers, which may be an amplification through a positive LA feedback among initial atmosphere and land states, convection triggering and large-scale circulations.

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