Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 4 of 4 items for :

  • Author or Editor: Wei Chen x
  • Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology x
  • All content x
Clear All Modify Search
Wei-Yu Chang, Jothiram Vivekanandan, and Tai-Chi Chen Wang

Abstract

A variational algorithm for estimating measurement error covariance and the attenuation of X-band polarimetric radar measurements is described. It concurrently uses both the differential reflectivity Z DR and propagation phase ΦDP. The majority of the current attenuation estimation techniques use only ΦDP. A few of the ΦDP-based methods use Z DR as a constraint for verifying estimated attenuation. In this paper, a detailed observing system simulation experiment was used for evaluating the performance of the variational algorithm. The results were compared with a single-coefficient ΦDP-based method. Retrieved attenuation from the variational method is more accurate than the results from a single coefficient ΦDP-based method. Moreover, the variational method is less sensitive to measurement noise in radar observations. The variational method requires an accurate description of error covariance matrices. Relative weights between measurements and background values (i.e., mean value based on long-term DSD measurements in the variational method) are determined by their respective error covariances. Instead of using ad hoc values, error covariance matrices of background and radar measurement are statistically estimated and their spatial characteristics are studied. The estimated error covariance shows higher values in convective regions than in stratiform regions, as expected. The practical utility of the variational attenuation correction method is demonstrated using radar field measurements from the Taiwan Experimental Atmospheric Mobile-Radar (TEAM-R) during 2008’s Southwest Monsoon Experiment/Terrain-Influenced Monsoon Rainfall Experiment (SoWMEX/TiMREX). The accuracy of attenuation-corrected X-band radar measurements is evaluated by comparing them with collocated S-band radar measurements.

Full access
Jianqiong Zhan, Wenyuan Chang, Wei Li, Yanming Wang, Liqi Chen, and Jinpei Yan

Abstract

Fujian Province in southeastern coastal China is a relatively clean region with low emissions, as its high altitude isolates it from the rest of the country. However, the region experienced haze episodes on 3–14 December 2013. The authors performed simulations using the Weather Research and Forecasting Model coupled with chemistry (WRF-Chem) to examine the impacts of meteorological conditions, aerosol radiative feedbacks (ARFs; including aerosol direct and nearly first indirect effect), and internal and external emissions reduction scenarios on particulate matter smaller than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) concentrations. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first time the WRF-Chem model has been used to study air quality in this region. The model reasonably reproduced the meteorological conditions and PM2.5 concentrations. The analysis demonstrated that the highest-PM2.5 event was associated with a cold surge that promoted the impingement of northern pollutants on the region, and PM2.5 concentrations were sensitive to the emissions from the Yangtze River delta (16.6%) and the North China Plain (12.1%). This suggests that efforts toward coastal air quality improvement require regional cooperation to reduce emissions. Noticeably, ARFs were unlikely to increase PM2.5 concentrations in the coastal region, which was in contrast to the case in northern China. ARFs induced strong clean wind anomalies in the coastal region and also lowered the inland planetary boundary layer, which enhanced the blocking of northern pollutants crossing the high terrain in the north of Fujian Province. This indicates that ARFs tend to weaken the haze intensity in the southeastern coastal region.

Full access
Chunpeng Wang, Zhengzhao Johnny Luo, Xiuhong Chen, Xiping Zeng, Wei-Kuo Tao, and Xianglei Huang

Abstract

Cloud-top temperature (CTT) is an important parameter for convective clouds and is usually different from the 11-μm brightness temperature due to non-blackbody effects. This paper presents an algorithm for estimating convective CTT by using simultaneous passive [Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)] and active [CloudSat + Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO)] measurements of clouds to correct for the non-blackbody effect. To do this, a weighting function of the MODIS 11-μm band is explicitly calculated by feeding cloud hydrometer profiles from CloudSat and CALIPSO retrievals and temperature and humidity profiles based on ECMWF analyses into a radiation transfer model. Among 16 837 tropical deep convective clouds observed by CloudSat in 2008, the averaged effective emission level (EEL) of the 11-μm channel is located at optical depth ~0.72, with a standard deviation of 0.3. The distance between the EEL and cloud-top height determined by CloudSat is shown to be related to a parameter called cloud-top fuzziness (CTF), defined as the vertical separation between −30 and 10 dBZ of CloudSat radar reflectivity. On the basis of these findings a relationship is then developed between the CTF and the difference between MODIS 11-μm brightness temperature and physical CTT, the latter being the non-blackbody correction of CTT. Correction of the non-blackbody effect of CTT is applied to analyze convective cloud-top buoyancy. With this correction, about 70% of the convective cores observed by CloudSat in the height range of 6–10 km have positive buoyancy near cloud top, meaning clouds are still growing vertically, although their final fate cannot be determined by snapshot observations.

Full access
Chong Shen, Xiaoyang Chen, Wei Dai, Xiaohui Li, Jie Wu, Qi Fan, Xuemei Wang, Liye Zhu, Pakwai Chan, Jian Hang, Shaojia Fan, and Weibiao Li

Abstract

On urban scales, the detailed characteristics of land-use information and building properties are vital to improving the meteorological model. The WRF Model with high-spatial-resolution urban fraction (UF) and urban morphology (UM) is used to study the impacts of these urban canopy parameters (UCPs) on dynamical and thermal meteorological fields in two representative seasons in Guangzhou. The results of two seasons are similar and as follows. 1) The impacts of updated UF and UM are obvious on wind speed but minor on temperature and humidity. In the urban environment, the results with updated UF and UM are more consistent with observations compared with the default UCPs, which means the performance of the model has been improved. 2) The dynamical factors associated with wind speed are analyzed. Turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) is significantly affected by UM but little by UF. And both UF and UM are found to influence friction velocity U*. The UM and greater UF attained larger U*. 3) In addition, the thermal fields are analyzed. The UM and increased UF induce higher surface skin temperature (TSK) and ground heat flux in the daytime, indicating that more heat is transported from the surface to the soil. At night, more heat is transported from the soil to the surface, producing higher TSK. For sensible heat flux (HFX), greater UF induces larger HFX during the daytime. But the effects of UM are complex, which makes HFX decrease during the daytime and increase at night. Finally, larger UF attains lower latent heat in the daytime.

Full access