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  • Author or Editor: Wei Chen x
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Maosi Chen, John Davis, and Wei Gao

Abstract

Cloud screening of direct-beam solar radiation is an essential step for in situ calibration and atmospheric properties retrieval. The internal cloud screening module of a Langley analysis program [Langley Analyzer (LA)] used by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) UV-B Monitoring and Research Program (UVMRP) is used for screening the uncalibrated direct-beam measurements and for deriving Langley offset voltages for calibration of the UV version of the Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer (UV-MFRSR). The current LA cloud screening module utilizes data from extended clear-sky periods and tends to ignore shorter periods that typify periods of broken cloudiness, and as a result, fewer values are generated for sites with higher frequencies of cloudy days (cloudy sites). A new cloud screening algorithm is presented that calculates the total optical depth (TOD) difference between a target point and pairs of points, and identifies the target as cloudy if the mean TOD difference exceeds a certain threshold. The screening is an iterative process that finishes when no new cloudy points are found. The result at a typical clear/sunny site shows that values from partly cloudy days are consistent with those from cloud-free days, when the new method is employed. The new cloud screening algorithm picks up significantly more values at cloudy sites. The larger decrease of the annual mean value of at cloudy sites than at relatively clear sites suggests the potential for improving calibration accuracy at cloudy sites. The results also show that the new cloud screening method is capable of detecting clear points in short clear windows and in transitional regions.

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Wei-Yu Chang, Tai-Chi Chen Wang, and Pay-Liam Lin

Abstract

The drop size distribution (DSD) and drop shape relation (DSR) characteristics that were observed by a ground-based 2D video disdrometer and retrieved from a C-band polarimetric radar in the typhoon systems during landfall in the western Pacific, near northern Taiwan, were analyzed. The evolution of the DSD and its relation with the vertical development of the reflectivity of two rainband cases are fully illustrated. Three different types of precipitation systems were classified—weak stratiform, stratiform, and convective—according to characteristics of the mass-weighted diameter Dm, the maximum diameter, and the vertical structure of reflectivity. Further study of the relationship between the height H of the 15-dBZ contour of the vertical reflectivity profile, surface reflectivity Z, and the mass-weighted diameter Dm showed that Dm increased with a corresponding increase in the system depth H and reflectivity Z.

An analysis of DSDs retrieved from the National Central University (NCU) C-band polarimetric radar and disdrometer in typhoon cases indicates that the DSDs from the typhoon systems on the ocean were mainly a maritime convective type. However, the DSDs collected over land tended to uniquely locate in between the continental and maritime clusters. The average mass-weighted diameter Dm was about 2 mm and the average logarithmic normalized intercept Nw was about 3.8 log10 mm−1 m−3 in typhoon cases. The unique terrain-influenced deep convective systems embedded in typhoons in northern Taiwan might be the reason for these characteristics.

The “effective DSR” of typhoon systems had an axis ratio similar to that found by E. A. Brandes et al. when the raindrops were less than 1.5 mm. Nevertheless, the axis ratio tended to be more spherical with drops greater than 1.5 mm and under higher horizontal winds (maximum wind speed less than 8 m s−1). A fourth-order fitting DSR was derived for typhoon systems and the value was also very close to the estimated DSR from the polarimetric measurements in Typhoon Saomai (2006).

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Yiwen Pan, Yifan Li, Wei Fan, Dahai Zhang, Yongfa Qiang, Zong-Pei Jiang, and Ying Chen

Abstract

Artificial upwelling (AU), as one of the geoengineering tools, has received worldwide attention because of its potential ability to actualize ocean fertilization in a sustainable way. The severe challenges of AU are the design and fabrication of a technologically robust device with structural longevity that can maintain the function in the variable and complex hydrodynamics of the upper ocean. In this work, a sea trial of an air-lift concept AU system driven by self-powered energy was carried out in the East China Sea (ECS; 30°8′14″N, 122°44′59″E) to assess the logistics of at-sea deployment and the durability of the equipment under extremely complex hydrodynamic conditions from 3 to 7 September 2014. Seawater below the thermocline layer was measured to be uplifted from approximately 30 m to the euphotic layer with a volumetric upwelling rate of 155.43 m3 h−1 and total inputs of 2.8 mol h−1 NO3 , 0.15 mol h−1 PO4 3−, and 4.41 mol h−1 SiO4 3−. A plume formed by cold, saline deep ocean water (DOW) was tracked by a drifting buoy system with a mixing ratio of 37%–51% DOW at the depth of 18–22 m, which conforms to the simulation results. During the AU’s application, disturbance in the vertical hydrological structure could be observed. However, diatom (Skeletonema costatum) blooming from somewhere in the outer ECS floated to the sea trial region on the second day after the AU’s application, which makes it hard to strip off the biochemical effects of AU from the effects of S. costatum bloom.

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An-Zhou Cao, Hui Chen, Wei Fan, Hai-Lun He, Jin-Bao Song, and Ji-Cai Zhang

Abstract

Previous studies have shown that strong tidal currents can cause intense turbulent mixing near the seafloor in continental shelf areas. To quantify the turbulent mixing, the eddy viscosity coefficient is generally used. In this study, an estimation scheme is proposed to evaluate the eddy viscosity profile (EVP) in the bottom Ekman boundary layer based on the adjoint method. The estimation scheme is composed of the bottom Ekman boundary layer model and its adjoint model, and a minimization algorithm. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed scheme are validated by a series of twin experiments, where the proposed scheme is compared with three other schemes in previous studies. When large measurement errors exist, the proposed scheme performs better than the three other schemes. When large Ekman balance errors exist, the proposed scheme is better than two of the other schemes. The selection of components of the steady current and tidal constituents also influences the performance of the proposed scheme. Successful estimation of the EVP requires the usage of intense components of the steady current and tidal constituents. With the usage of the intense components, increasing the number of tidal constituents cannot lead to a more accurate estimation of the EVP.

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Ming Ying, Wei Zhang, Hui Yu, Xiaoqin Lu, Jingxian Feng, Yongxiang Fan, Yongti Zhu, and Dequan Chen

Abstract

The China Meteorological Administration (CMA)’s tropical cyclone (TC) database includes not only the best-track dataset but also TC-induced wind and precipitation data. This article summarizes the characteristics and key technical details of the CMA TC database. In addition to the best-track data, other phenomena that occurred with the TCs are also recorded in the dataset, such as the subcenters, extratropical transitions, outer-range severe winds associated with TCs over the South China Sea, and coastal severe winds associated with TCs landfalling in China. These data provide additional information for researchers. The TC-induced wind and precipitation data, which map the distribution of severe wind and rainfall, are also helpful for investigating the impacts of TCs. The study also considers the changing reliability of the various data sources used since the database was created and the potential causes of temporal and spatial inhomogeneities within the datasets. Because of the greater number of observations available for analysis, the CMA TC database is likely to be more accurate and complete over the offshore and land areas of China than over the open ocean. Temporal inhomogeneities were induced primarily by changes to the nature and quality of the input data, such as the development of a weather observation network in China and the use of satellite image analysis to replace the original aircraft reconnaissance data. Furthermore, technical and factitious changes, such as to the wind–pressure relationship and the satellite-derived current intensity (CI) number–intensity conversion, also led to inhomogeneities within the datasets.

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Chih-Chiang Wei, Gene Jiing-Yun You, Li Chen, Chien-Chang Chou, and Jinsheng Roan

Abstract

Rainfall is a fundamental process in the hydrologic cycle. This study investigated the cause–effect relationship in which precipitation at lower frequencies affects the amount of emitted radiation and at higher frequencies affects the amount of backscattered terrestrial radiation. Because the advantage of a probabilistic graphical model is its graphical representation, which allows easy causality interpretation using the arc directions, two Bayesian networks (BNs) were used, namely, a naïve Bayes classifier and a tree-augmented naïve Bayes model. To empirically evaluate and compare BN-based models, “black box”–based models, including nearest-neighbor searches and artificial neural network (ANN)-based multilayer perceptron and logistic regression, were used as benchmarks. For the two study regions—namely, the Tanshui River basin in northern Taiwan and Chianan Plain in southern Taiwan—rain occurrences during typhoon seasons were examined using passive microwave imagery recorded using the Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder. The results show that although black box models exhibit excellent prediction ability, interpretation of their behavior is unsatisfactory. By contrast, probabilistic graphical models can explicitly reveal the causal relationship between brightness temperatures and nonrain/rain discrimination. For the Tanshui River basin, 19.35-, 22.23-, 37.0-, and 85.5-GHz vertically polarized brightness temperatures were found to diagnose rain occurrences. For the Chianan Plain, a more sensitive indicator of rain-scattering signals was obtained using 85-GHz measurements. The results demonstrate the potential use of BNs in identifying rain occurrences in regions with land features comprising various absorbing and scattering materials.

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Yanzhou Wei, Sarah T. Gille, Matthew R. Mazloff, Veronica Tamsitt, Sebastiaan Swart, Dake Chen, and Louise Newman

Abstract

Proposals from multiple nations to deploy air–sea flux moorings in the Southern Ocean have raised the question of how to optimize the placement of these moorings in order to maximize their utility, both as contributors to the network of observations assimilated in numerical weather prediction and also as a means to study a broad range of processes driving air–sea fluxes. This study, developed as a contribution to the Southern Ocean Observing System (SOOS), proposes criteria that can be used to determine mooring siting to obtain best estimates of net air–sea heat flux (Qnet). Flux moorings are envisioned as one component of a multiplatform observing system, providing valuable in situ point time series measurements to be used alongside satellite data and observations from autonomous platforms and ships. Assimilating models (e.g., numerical weather prediction and reanalysis products) then offer the ability to synthesize the observing system and map properties between observations. This paper develops a framework for designing mooring array configurations to maximize the independence and utility of observations. As a test case, within the meridional band from 35° to 65°S we select eight mooring sites optimized to explain the largest fraction of the total variance (and thus to ensure the least variance of residual components) in the area south of 20°S. Results yield different optimal mooring sites for low-frequency interannual heat fluxes compared with higher-frequency subseasonal fluxes. With eight moorings, we could explain a maximum of 24.6% of high-frequency Qnet variability or 44.7% of low-frequency Qnet variability.

Open access
Linghui Cai, Shaoping Shang, Guomei Wei, Zhigang He, Yanshuang Xie, Ke Liu, Tao Zhou, Jinquan Chen, Feng Zhang, and Yan Li

Abstract

Dual high-frequency (HF) radar systems are often used to provide measurements of waves, winds, and currents. In this study, the accuracy of wave measurements using a single HF radar system (OS081H-A) was explored using datasets obtained during 5–27 January 2014 in the southwestern Taiwan Strait. We selected the study region as an area with >90% coverage (i.e., the range was <100 km). Qualitative and quantitative intercomparison of wave measurements (by the radar and five buoys) and wave model products [from the Simulating Wave Nearshore (SWAN) model] were conducted. Intercomparison of the modeled and in situ significant wave height Hs showed that the model-predicted Hs could be considered to be acceptable for use as “sea truth” to evaluate the radar-derived Hs, with mean bias from −0.45 to −0.16 m, mean absolute error (MAE) of 0.24–0.45 m, and root-mean-square error of 0.31–0.54 m. It was found that the MAE of radar-derived Hs was ≤ 1 m for 86% of the sector (except at the edge of sector) when the model-predicted Hs was ≥ 1.5 m. In particular, the MAE was less than 0.6 m for 63% of the sector, which was mainly distributed in the area with a bearing from −50° to +70° and a range of 20–70 km. The results are promising, but more work is needed. We employed a spatial distribution function for the MAE of the radar-derived Hs over the sample duration based on range, bearing, and mean radar-derived Hs.

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Guomei Wei, Zhigang He, Yanshuang Xie, Shaoping Shang, Hao Dai, Jingyu Wu, Ke Liu, Rui Lin, Yan Wan, Hang Lin, Jinrui Chen, and Yan Li

Abstract

Two Ocean State Monitoring and Analyzing Radar (OSMAR071) (7.8 MHz) high-frequency (HF) radars and four moored ADCPs were operated concurrently in the southwestern Taiwan Strait during January–March 2013. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons of surface currents were conducted between the HF radars and the ADCPs. Except for a location probably affected by shallow water and sand waves on the Taiwan Banks, the HF-radar-derived radial currents (radials) showed good agreement with the ADCP measured results (correlation coefficient: 0.89–0.98; rms difference: 0.07–0.13 m s−1). To provide further insight into the geophysical processes involved, the performance of the HF-radar-derived radials was further evaluated under different sea states (sea states: 2–6). It was found that both the data returns of the radar-derived radials and the differences between the radar-derived radials and the ADCP-derived radials varied with sea state. The HF radar performed best at sea state 4 in terms of data returns. The spatial coverage increased rapidly as the waves increased from sea state 2 to 4. However, it decreased slowly from sea state 4 to 6. Second, the radial differences were relatively high under lower sea states (2 and 3) at the location where the best agreement was obtained between the radar and ADCP radials, whereas the differences increased as the sea states increased at the other three locations. The differences between the radials measured by the HF radars and the ADCPs could be attributed to wave-induced Stokes drift and spatial sampling differences.

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Xianxin Li, Zhangjun Wang, Libin Du, Xingtao Liu, Xiufen Wang, Chao Chen, Xiangqian Meng, Hui Li, Quanfeng Zhuang, Wei Deng, Xin Pan, and Xinzhao Chu

Abstract

Observations of the atmospheric trace gases are crucial for quality assessment of the human living environment. Multiaxis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) is the most promising candidate to meet the requirements on observations of atmospheric trace gases with high sensitivity, good stability, and a wide range of regional monitoring. The shipborne observations of tropospheric trace gases (NO2, SO2, and O3) over a coastal city, Qingdao, with MAX-DOAS were conducted by a Chinese oceanographic research vessel, XiangYangHong 08 (XYH 08). During the observational campaign, the shipborne MAX-DOAS equipment was used to make anchor measurements for 3 days, and a sailing measurement along Qingdao coast for half an hour. Measurement results are presented for both sailing and anchor point measurements in this paper. Combining geometry characteristic of the monitoring area, it can be concluded from the sailing measurements that the traffic emissions may play an important role in the boundary layer (BL) pollution of a coastal city’s atmosphere. The anchor point measurements showed that the NO2 vertical column density (VCD) mean value of Jiaozhou Bay is about 2.7 times of the value of the Qingdao offshore sea area. Likewise, the tropospheric VCDs of SO2 and O3 have an increase of 30% and 40%, respectively, on 1 September in Jiaozhou Bay, compared to the other 2 days in Qingdao offshore sea area.

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