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Michio Yanai, Baode Chen, and Wen-wen Tung


During the TOGA COARE Intensive Observing Period (November 1992–February 1993), two pronounced Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) events associated with super cloud clusters and westerly wind bursts were observed. This paper presents a global view of the MJOs including the origin of the super clusters in the Indian Ocean, their migration into the Maritime Continent and the TOGA COARE large-scale soundings array (LSA) in the western equatorial Pacific, and their rapid decay over cold water of the eastern Pacific. The structure and evolution of the MJO are examined with emphasis on the coupling between large-scale motion and convection. Because of differences in propagation speeds, the positions of maximum zonal wind perturbations relative to deep convection undergo systematic changes during the travel of the MJO. However, the centers of deep convection always coincide with those of large-scale ascent. The super cloud cluster accompanies a wide area of warm air in the upper troposphere. Over the warm pool region the perturbation kinetic energy of the motion in the 30–60-day period range is maintained by the conversion of perturbation available potential energy generated by convective heating. Over the central-eastern Pacific, there is strong horizontal convergence of wave energy flux entering the equatorial upper-tropospheric westerly duct from the extratropical latitudes, suggesting interactions of the MJO with midlatitude disturbances.

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Shu-Hua Chen and Wen-Yih Sun


An explicit one-dimensional time-dependent tilting cloud model has been developed for use in cumulus parameterizations. The tilting axis is not necessarily orthogonal to the (r, θ) plane, making the horizontal axisymmetric assumption more reasonable. This explicit time-dependent tilting model (ETTM) consists of an updraft and a downdraft, which are governed by the same dynamic and thermodynamic equations. The updraft is initiated by a moist thermal bubble, while the downdraft is consequently induced by evaporative cooling and the drag force of precipitation separating from the tilting updraft instead of being arbitrarily initialized.

The updraft is capable of reproducing the major features of a deep cloud such as overshooting cooling above the cloud top, evaporative cooling near the surface, and drying in the lower atmosphere at dissipating stages. The entrainment–detrainment rate in this model is well defined, and its time variation is quite significant. Moreover, the vertical profile of the air inside the updraft does not follow the moist adiabat after deep convection. For the downdraft, the total precipitation and mass flux at low levels contributed from the downdraft cannot be neglected in this case study. In addition, the downdraft can bring dry air from middle levels to lower levels.

Three sensitivity tests—the environmental sounding, the tilting angle, and the radius of the updraft–downdraft— have also been conducted. The cooling–warming of a downdraft near the surface is sensitive to the environmental sounding, consistent with results from Srivastava. The cloud life span, maximum vertical velocity, precipitation amount, and vertical mass flux are strongly influenced by the tilting angle and the radius of the cloud.

The results from the ETTM simulation are quite reasonable and promising. However, some deficiencies of this model still exist, and more research will be conducted to improve its performance. The final goal is to implement this 1D model in a mesoscale model's cumulus parameterization scheme.

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Xi Cao, Tim Li, Melinda Peng, Wen Chen, and Guanghua Chen


The effects of intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) of the western North Pacific (WNP) monsoon trough on tropical cyclone (TC) formation were investigated using the Advanced Research Weather Research and Forecasting (ARW) Model. A weak vortex was specified initially and inserted into the background fields containing climatological-mean anomalies associated with active and inactive phases of monsoon trough ISOs.

The diagnosis of simulations showed that monsoon trough ISO can modulate TC development through both dynamic and thermodynamic processes. The dynamic impact is attributed to the lower–midtropospheric large-scale vorticity associated with monsoon trough ISO. Interactions between cyclonic vorticity in the lower middle troposphere during the active ISO phase and a vortex lead to the generation of vortex-scale outflow at the midlevel, which promotes the upward penetration of friction-induced ascending motion and thus upward moisture transport. In addition, the low-level convergence associated with active ISO also helps the upward moisture transport. Both processes contribute to stronger diabatic heating and thus promote a positive convection–circulation–moisture feedback. On the other hand, the large-scale flow associated with inactive ISO suppresses upward motion near the core by inducing the midlevel inflow and the divergence forcing within the boundary layer, both inhibiting TC development. The thermodynamic impact comes from greater background specific humidity associated with active ISO that allows a stronger diabatic heating. Experiments that separated the dynamic and thermodynamic impacts of the ISO showed that the thermodynamic anomaly from active ISO contributes more to TC development, while the dynamic anomalies from inactive ISO can inhibit vortex development completely.

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Robert G. Lamb, Wen H. Chen, and John H. Seinfeld


Numerico-empirical expressions for the particle displacement probability density function from which the mean concentration of material in turbulent fluid may be obtained are derived from the numerical planetary boundary layer model of Deardorff. These expressions are then used to compute profiles of the mean, cross-wind-integrated concentration of an inert pollutant issuing from a continuous point source below a stable layer. Profiles are derived for each of two conditions of atmospheric stability: zi/L=0 and –4.5, where zi is the inversion base height and L the Monin-Obukhov length. The resulting concentration profiles [referred to as the numerico-empirical (NE) profiles] are then used in two separate experiments designed to assess the adequacy of conventional atmospheric diffusion formulations.

First, the validity of the atmospheric diffusion equation is assessed by determining for each of the two stabilities cited above the profile of vertical eddy diffusivity that produces the closest fit of the mean concentration predicted by the atmospheric diffusion equation with the NE profiles.

Second, comparisons are made between the NE profiles and the corresponding concentration distributions predicted by the Gaussian plume formula with Pasquill-Gifford dispersion parameters, and the Gaussian puff equation with McElroy-Pooler travel-time-dependent dispersion parameters.

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