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  • Author or Editor: X. Gao x
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J. Li, X. Gao, and S. Sorooshian

Abstract

Estimating the water budgets in a small-scale basin is a challenge, especially in the mountainous western United States, where the terrain is complex and observational data in the mountain areas are sparse. This manuscript reports on research that downscaled 5-yr (1999–2004) hydrometeorological fields over the upper Rio Grande basin from a 2.5° NCEP–NCAR reanalysis to a 4-km local scale using a regional climate model [fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research Mesoscale Model (MM5), version 3]. The model can reproduce the terrain-related precipitation distribution—the trend of diurnal, seasonal, and interannual precipitation variability—although poor snow simulation caused it to overestimate precipitation and evapotranspiration in the cold season. The outcomes from the coupled model are also comparable to offline Variable Infiltration Capacity (VIC) and Land Data Assimilation System (LDAS)/Mosaic land surface simulations that are driven by observed and/or analyzed surface meteorological data.

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J. Li, X. Gao, and S. Sorooshian

Abstract

This study downscaled more than five years of data (1999–2004) for hydrometeorological fields over the upper Rio Grande basin (URGB) to a 4-km resolution using a regional model [fifth-generation Pennsylvania State University–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Mesoscale Model (MM5, version 3)] and two forcing datasets that include National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)–NCAR reanalysis-1 (R1) and North America Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data. The long-term high-resolution simulation results show detailed patterns of hydroclimatological fields that are highly related to the characteristics of the regional terrain; the most important of these patterns are precipitation localization features caused by the complex topography. In comparison with station observational data, the downscaling processing, on whichever forcing field is used, generated more accurate surface temperature and humidity fields than the Eta Model and NARR data, although it still included marked errors, such as a negative (positive) bias toward the daily maximum (minimum) temperature and overestimated precipitation, especially in the cold season.

Comparing the downscaling results forced by the NARR and R1 with both the gridded and station observational data shows that under the NARR forcing, the MM5 model produced generally better results for precipitation, temperature, and humidity than it did under the R1 forcing. These improvements were more apparent in winter and spring. During the warm season, although the use of NARR improved the precipitation estimates statistically at the regional (basin) scale, it substantially underestimated them over the southern upper Rio Grande basin, partly because the NARR forcing data exhibited warm and dry biases in the monsoon-active region during the simulation period and improper domain selection. Analyses also indicate that over mountainous regions, both the Climate Prediction Center’s (CPC’s) gridded (0.25°) and NARR forcings underestimate precipitation in comparison with station gauge data.

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Z. Wang, X. Zeng, M. Barlage, R. E. Dickinson, F. Gao, and C. B. Schaaf

Abstract

The land surface albedo in the NCAR Community Climate System Model (CCSM2) is calculated based on a two-stream approximation, which does not include the effect of three-dimensional vegetation structure on radiative transfer. The model albedo (including monthly averaged albedo, direct albedo at local noon, and the solar zenith angle dependence of albedo) is evaluated using the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and albedo data acquired during July 2001–July 2002. The model monthly averaged albedos in February and July are close to the MODIS white-sky albedos (within 0.02 or statistically insignificant) over about 40% of the global land between 60°S and 70°N. However, CCSM2 significantly underestimates albedo by 0.05 or more over deserts (e.g., the Sahara Desert) and some semiarid regions (e.g., parts of Australia). The difference between the model direct albedo at local noon and the MODIS black-sky albedo for the near-infrared (NIR) band (with wavelength > 0.7 μm) is larger than the difference for the visible band (with wavelength < 0.7 μm) for most snow-free regions. For eleven model grid cells with different dominant plant functional types, the model diffuse NIR albedo is higher by 0.05 or more than the MODIS white-sky albedo in five of these cells. Direct albedos from the model and MODIS (as computed using the BRDF parameters) increase with solar zenith angles, but model albedo increases faster than the MODIS data. These analyses and the MODIS BRDF and albedo data provide a starting point toward developing a BRDF-based treatment of radiative transfer through a canopy for land surface models that can realistically simulate the mean albedo and the solar zenith angle dependence of albedo.

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