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  • Author or Editor: Y. Chang x
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K. M. Lin, J. Y. Juang, Y.-W. Shiu, and L. F. W. Chang

Abstract

In air quality models, daytime sensible and latent heat fluxes are important factors that influence atmospheric stability. These heat fluxes originate from heat that is generated from solar radiation and is then released from the earth’s surface. Different climates and surface conditions may lead to varying heat flux distributions. Because latent heat flux is influenced by both solar radiation and plant evapotranspiration, it is often difficult to estimate. The objective of this study was to apply thermodynamic concepts to determine an equation that could be used to estimate the Bowen ratio in the absence of latent and sensible heat fluxes. This study showed that, using two meteorological parameters (i.e., absolute temperature and relative humidity), the Bowen ratio for the climate in Taiwan could be obtained and then used to estimate sensible and latent heat fluxes in a series of equations. Furthermore, the approach’s applicability was determined by testing the sensitivities of parameters used in the Bowen ratio equation. A comparison of results determined through the Priestly–Taylor and Penman–Monteith methods with meteorological data for Yilan and Chiayi counties, Taiwan, for the 2006 summer and winter is performed. The results of this study showed that, among the simulated latent heat fluxes in the two study areas, the values estimated using the Penman–Monteith method were the largest, followed by those estimated using the Priestly–Taylor method. Values estimated using the Bowen ratio method were the smallest. Predictions generated by the proposed Bowen ratio equation correlated with those generated by the other models; however, the values estimated with the Priestly–Taylor method were closest to the simulated values.

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J. C. Hubbert, S. M. Ellis, W.-Y. Chang, and Y.-C. Liou

Abstract

In this paper, experimental X-band polarimetric radar data from simultaneous transmission of horizontal (H) and vertical (V) polarizations (SHV) are shown, modeled, and microphysically interpreted. Both range–height indicator data and vertical-pointing X-band data from the Taiwan Experimental Atmospheric Mobile-Radar (TEAM-R) are presented. Some of the given X-band data are biased, which is very likely caused by cross coupling of the H and V transmitted waves as a result of aligned, canted ice crystals. Modeled SHV data are used to explain the observed polarimetric signatures. Coincident data from the National Center for Atmospheric Research S-band polarimetric radar (S-Pol) are presented to augment and support the X-band polarimetric observations and interpretations. The polarimetric S-Pol data are obtained via fast-alternating transmission of horizontal and vertical polarizations (FHV), and thus the S-band data are not contaminated by the cross coupling (except the linear depolarization ratio LDR) observed in the X-band data. The radar data reveal that there are regions in the ice phase where electric fields are apparently aligning ice crystals near vertically and thus causing negative specific differential phase K dp. The vertical-pointing data also indicate the presence of preferentially aligned ice crystals that cause differential reflectivity Z dr and differential phase ϕ dp to be strong functions of azimuth angle.

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J. C. Hubbert, S. M. Ellis, W.-Y. Chang, S. Rutledge, and M. Dixon

Abstract

Data collected by the National Center for Atmospheric Research S-band polarimetric radar (S-Pol) during the Terrain-Influenced Monsoon Rainfall Experiment (TiMREX) in Taiwan are analyzed and used to infer storm microphysics in the ice phase of convective storms. Both simultaneous horizontal (H) and vertical (V) (SHV) transmit polarization data and fast-alternating H and V (FHV) transmit polarization data are used in the analysis. The SHV Z dr (differential reflectivity) data show radial stripes of biased data in the ice phase that are likely caused by aligned and canted ice crystals. Similar radial streaks in the linear depolarization ratio (LDR) are presented that are also biased by the same mechanism. Dual-Doppler synthesis and sounding data characterize the storm environment and support the inferences concerning the ice particle types. Small convective cells were observed to have both large positive and large negative K dp (specific differential phase) values. Negative K dp regions suggest that ice crystals are vertically aligned by electric fields. Since high |K dp| values of 0.8° km−1 in both negative and positive K dp regions in the ice phase are accompanied by Z dr values close to 0 dB, it is inferred that there are two types of ice crystals present: 1) smaller aligned ice crystals that cause the K dp signatures and 2) larger aggregates or graupel that cause the Z dr signatures. The inferences are supported with simulated ice particle scattering calculations. A radar scattering model is used to explain the anomalous radial streaks in SHV and LDR.

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C. Kummerow, J. Simpson, O. Thiele, W. Barnes, A. T. C. Chang, E. Stocker, R. F. Adler, A. Hou, R. Kakar, F. Wentz, P. Ashcroft, T. Kozu, Y. Hong, K. Okamoto, T. Iguchi, H. Kuroiwa, E. Im, Z. Haddad, G. Huffman, B. Ferrier, W. S. Olson, E. Zipser, E. A. Smith, T. T. Wilheit, G. North, T. Krishnamurti, and K. Nakamura

Abstract

The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite was launched on 27 November 1997, and data from all the instruments first became available approximately 30 days after the launch. Since then, much progress has been made in the calibration of the sensors, the improvement of the rainfall algorithms, and applications of these results to areas such as data assimilation and model initialization. The TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI) calibration has been corrected and verified to account for a small source of radiation leaking into the TMI receiver. The precipitation radar calibration has been adjusted upward slightly (by 0.6 dBZ) to match better the ground reference targets; the visible and infrared sensor calibration remains largely unchanged. Two versions of the TRMM rainfall algorithms are discussed. The at-launch (version 4) algorithms showed differences of 40% when averaged over the global Tropics over 30-day periods. The improvements to the rainfall algorithms that were undertaken after launch are presented, and intercomparisons of these products (version 5) show agreement improving to 24% for global tropical monthly averages. The ground-based radar rainfall product generation is discussed. Quality-control issues have delayed the routine production of these products until the summer of 2000, but comparisons of TRMM products with early versions of the ground validation products as well as with rain gauge network data suggest that uncertainties among the TRMM algorithms are of approximately the same magnitude as differences between TRMM products and ground-based rainfall estimates. The TRMM field experiment program is discussed to describe active areas of measurements and plans to use these data for further algorithm improvements. In addition to the many papers in this special issue, results coming from the analysis of TRMM products to study the diurnal cycle, the climatological description of the vertical profile of precipitation, storm types, and the distribution of shallow convection, as well as advances in data assimilation of moisture and model forecast improvements using TRMM data, are discussed in a companion TRMM special issue in the Journal of Climate (1 December 2000, Vol. 13, No. 23).

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