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Ruowen Yang, Zhiang Xie, and Jie Cao


Based on the ridge line of the western Pacific subtropical high (WPSH) and the theory of gradient wind approximation, a dynamic index for the westward ridge point (WRPI) of the WPSH is defined. Owing to its definition, the new dynamic index can be used to analyze the evolution of the WPSH at various time scales over most isobaric surfaces. The WRPI comprises two dimensions labeled ZWRPI and MWRPI, which depict the zonal and meridional movement, respectively, of the westward ridge point of the WPSH. The rationality and reliability of the dynamic index were validated using reanalysis atmospheric circulation, outgoing longwave radiation, surface air temperature, and rainfall data. The WRPI series revealed that the westward ridge point of the WPSH generally advances poleward while withdrawing eastward. Furthermore, there were close relationships between the WRPI, atmospheric circulation, outgoing longwave radiation, and precipitation over East Asia and the western Pacific in summer. The significant correlation coefficients indicated that the ZWRPI and the MWRPI can reflect the impact of the zonal and meridional movement of the WPSH on the climate over East Asia and the western Pacific. The ZWRPI has no significant linear trend at the interdecadal time scale, indicating that the WPSH did not significantly extend westward in summer. The slight decrease of the MWRPI suggests that the WPSH moves southward but with an insignificant trend. Compared with indices proposed in previous studies, the WRPI showed advantages in objectivity, reliability, predictability, practicability, and therefore extensive potential for application.

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Jie Cao, Shu Gui, Qin Su, and Yali Yang


The interannual zonal movement of the interface between the Indian summer monsoon and the East Asian summer monsoon (IIE), associated with the spring sea surface temperature (SST) seesaw mode (SSTSM) over the tropical Indian Ocean (TIO) and the tropical central-western Pacific (TCWP), is studied for the period 1979–2008. The observational analysis is based on Twentieth Century Reanalysis data (version 2) of atmospheric circulations, Extended Reconstructed SST data (version 3), and the Climate Prediction Center Merged Analysis of Precipitation. The results indicate that the IIE’s zonal movement is significantly and persistently correlated with the TIO–TCWP SSTSM, from spring to summer. The results of two case studies resemble those obtained by regression analysis. Experiments using an atmospheric general circulation model (ECHAM6) substantiate the key physical processes revealed in the observational analysis. When warmer (colder) SSTs appear in the TIO and colder (warmer) SSTs occur in the TCWP, the positive (negative) SSTSM forces anomalous easterly (westerly) winds over the Bay of Bengal (BOB), South China Sea (SCS), and western North Pacific (WNP). The anomalous easterly (westerly) winds further result in a weakened (strengthened) southwest summer monsoon over the BOB and a strengthened (weakened) southeast summer monsoon over the SCS and WNP. This causes the IIE to shift farther eastward (westward) than normal.

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