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Yang Cao and Robert G. Fovell

Abstract

The “Santa Ana” wind is an offshore flow that affects Southern California periodically during the winter half of the year, typically between September and May. The winds can be locally gusty, particularly in the complex terrain of San Diego County, where the winds have characteristics of downslope windstorms. These winds can cause and/or rapidly spread wildfires, the threat of which is particularly acute during the autumn season before the onset of winter rains. San Diego’s largest fires, including the Cedar fire of 2003 and Witch Creek fire of 2007, occurred during Santa Ana wind events.

A case study of downslope flow during a moderately intense Santa Ana event during mid-February 2013 is presented. Motivated by the need to forecast winds impinging on electrical lines, the authors make use of an exceptionally dense network of near-surface observations in San Diego County to calibrate and verify simulations made utilizing the Advanced Research version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model, which in turn is employed to augment the observations. Results demonstrate that this particular Santa Ana episode consists of two pulses separated by a protracted lull. During the first pulse, the downslope flow is characterized by a prominent hydraulic jumplike feature, while during the second one the flow possesses a clear temporal progression of winds downslope. WRF has skill in capturing the evolution and magnitude of the event at most locations, although most model configurations overpredict the observed sustained wind and the forecast bias is itself biased.

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