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Xuhui Lee, Shoudong Liu, Wei Xiao, Wei Wang, Zhiqiu Gao, Chang Cao, Cheng Hu, Zhenghua Hu, Shuanghe Shen, Yongwei Wang, Xuefa Wen, Qitao Xiao, Jiaping Xu, Jinbiao Yang, and Mi Zhang

Lakes are an important component of the climate system. They provide moisture for precipitation, buffer temperature variations, and contribute to regional atmospheric carbon budgets. This article describes an eddy covariance (EC) mesonet on Lake Taihu, a large (area 2400 km2) and shallow (depth 2 m) lake situated in the heavily populated Yangtze River Delta, China. The mesonet consists of five lake sites, representing different biological attributes and wind–wave patterns, and a land site near the lake shore. Common to all the sites are standard EC instruments for measurement of the momentum, sensible heat, water vapor, and CO2 flux. One site is also equipped with laser-based analyzers for precise measurement of the CO2, CH4, and H2O mixing ratios and their isotopic compositions. To the authors' best knowledge, this is the first lake eddy flux mesonet. Early results reveal evidence of biological and pollution controls on the surface–air fluxes of energy, momentum, and greenhouse gases across the lake. The data will be used to address five science questions: 1) Are lake–air parameterizations established for deep lakes applicable to shallow lakes? 2) Why are lake–land breeze circulations less prevalent in the Taihu lake basin than in lake basins in northern latitudes? 3) How do algal blooms alter the lake–atmosphere interactions? 4) Is this eutrophic lake a source or sink of atmospheric CO2? 5) Does the decay of algal and macrophyte biomass contribute significant amounts of CH4 to the atmosphere?

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Jinyuan Xin, Yuesi Wang, Yuepeng Pan, Dongsheng Ji, Zirui Liu, Tianxue Wen, Yinghong Wang, Xingru Li, Yang Sun, Jie Sun, Pucai Wang, Gehui Wang, Xinming Wang, Zhiyuan Cong, Tao Song, Bo Hu, Lili Wang, Guiqian Tang, Wenkang Gao, Yuhong Guo, Hongyan Miao, Shili Tian, and Lu Wang


Based on a network of field stations belonging to the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS), the Campaign on Atmospheric Aerosol Research network of China (CARE-China) was recently established as the country’s first monitoring network for the study of the spatiotemporal distribution of aerosol physical characteristics, chemical components, and optical properties, as well as aerosol gaseous precursors. The network comprises 36 stations in total and adopts a unified approach in terms of the instrumentation, experimental standards, and data specifications. This ongoing project is intended to provide an integrated research platform to monitor online PM2.5 concentrations, nine-size aerosol concentrations and chemical component distributions, nine-size secondary organic aerosol (SOA) component distributions, gaseous precursor concentrations (including SO2, NOx, CO, O3, and VOCs), and aerosol optical properties. The data will be used to identify the sources of regional aerosols, the relative contributions from nature and anthropogenic emissions, the formation of secondary aerosols, and the effects of aerosol component distributions on aerosol optical properties. The results will reduce the levels of uncertainty involved in the quantitative assessment of aerosol effects on regional climate and environmental changes and ultimately provide insight into how to mitigate anthropogenic aerosol emissions in China. The present paper provides a detailed description of the instrumentation, methodologies, and experimental procedures used across the network, as well as a case study of observations taken from one station and the distribution of main components of aerosol over China during 2012.

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William P. Kustas, Martha C. Anderson, Joseph G. Alfieri, Kyle Knipper, Alfonso Torres-Rua, Christopher K. Parry, Hector Nieto, Nurit Agam, William A. White, Feng Gao, Lynn McKee, John H. Prueger, Lawrence E. Hipps, Sebastian Los, Maria Mar Alsina, Luis Sanchez, Brent Sams, Nick Dokoozlian, Mac McKee, Scott Jones, Yun Yang, Tiffany G. Wilson, Fangni Lei, Andrew McElrone, Josh L. Heitman, Adam M. Howard, Kirk Post, Forrest Melton, and Christopher Hain


Particularly in light of California’s recent multiyear drought, there is a critical need for accurate and timely evapotranspiration (ET) and crop stress information to ensure long-term sustainability of high-value crops. Providing this information requires the development of tools applicable across the continuum from subfield scales to improve water management within individual fields up to watershed and regional scales to assess water resources at county and state levels. High-value perennial crops (vineyards and orchards) are major water users, and growers will need better tools to improve water-use efficiency to remain economically viable and sustainable during periods of prolonged drought. To develop these tools, government, university, and industry partners are evaluating a multiscale remote sensing–based modeling system for application over vineyards. During the 2013–17 growing seasons, the Grape Remote Sensing Atmospheric Profile and Evapotranspiration eXperiment (GRAPEX) project has collected micrometeorological and biophysical data within adjacent pinot noir vineyards in the Central Valley of California. Additionally, each year ground, airborne, and satellite remote sensing data were collected during intensive observation periods (IOPs) representing different vine phenological stages. An overview of the measurements and some initial results regarding the impact of vine canopy architecture on modeling ET and plant stress are presented here. Refinements to the ET modeling system based on GRAPEX are being implemented initially at the field scale for validation and then will be integrated into the regional modeling toolkit for large area assessment.

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