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Xing Yuan, Shanshan Wang, and Zeng-Zhen Hu
Open access
Xing Yuan, Linying Wang, and Eric F. Wood
Open access
Shanshan Wang, Xing Yuan, and Renguang Wu
Open access
Shanshan Wang, Jianping Huang, and Xing Yuan
Open access
Peng Ji, Xing Yuan, Yang Jiao, Chunqing Wang, Shuai Han, and Chunxiang Shi
Free access
Lei Yang, Dongxiao Wang, Jian Huang, Xin Wang, Lili Zeng, Rui Shi, Yunkai He, Qiang Xie, Shengan Wang, Rongyu Chen, Jinnan Yuan, Qiang Wang, Ju Chen, Tingting Zu, Jian Li, Dandan Sui, and Shiqiu Peng

Abstract

Air–sea interaction in the South China Sea (SCS) has direct impacts on the weather and climate of its surrounding areas at various spatiotemporal scales. In situ observation plays a vital role in exploring the dynamic characteristics of the regional circulation and air–sea interaction. Remote sensing and regional modeling are expected to provide high-resolution data for studies of air–sea coupling; however, careful validation and calibration using in situ observations is necessary to ensure the quality of these data. Through a decade of effort, a marine observation network in the SCS has begun to be established, yielding a regional observatory for the air–sea synoptic system.

Earlier observations in the SCS were scarce and narrowly focused. Since 2004, an annual series of scientific open cruises during late summer in the SCS has been organized by the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO), carefully designed based on the dynamic characteristics of the oceanic circulation and air–sea interaction in the SCS region. Since 2006, the cruise carried a radiometer and radiosondes on board, marking a new era of marine meteorological observation in the SCS. Fixed stations have been established for long-term and sustained records. Observations obtained through the network have been used to study regional ocean circulation and processes in the marine atmospheric boundary layer. In the future, a great number of multi-institutional, collaborative scientific cruises and observations at fixed stations will be carried out to establish a mesoscale hydrological and marine meteorological observation network in the SCS.

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Yaohui Li, Xing Yuan, Hongsheng Zhang, Runyuan Wang, Chenghai Wang, Xianhong Meng, Zhiqiang Zhang, Shanshan Wang, Yang Yang, Bo Han, Kai Zhang, Xiaoping Wang, Hong Zhao, Guangsheng Zhou, Qiang Zhang, Qing He, Ni Guo, Wei Hou, Cunjie Zhang, Guoju Xiao, Xuying Sun, Ping Yue, Sha Sha, Heling Wang, Tiejun Zhang, Jinsong Wang, and Yubi Yao

Abstract

A major experimental drought research project entitled “Mechanisms and Early Warning of Drought Disasters over Northern China” (DroughtEX_China) was launched by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China in 2015. The objective of DroughtEX_China is to investigate drought disaster mechanisms and provide early-warning information via multisource observations and multiscale modeling. Since the implementation of DroughtEX_China, a comprehensive V-shape in situ observation network has been established to integrate different observational experiment systems for different landscapes, including crops in northern China. In this article, we introduce the experimental area, observational network configuration, ground- and air-based observing/testing facilities, implementation scheme, and data management procedures and sharing policy. The preliminary observational and numerical experimental results show that the following are important processes for understanding and modeling drought disasters over arid and semiarid regions: 1) the soil water vapor–heat interactions that affect surface soil moisture variability, 2) the effect of intermittent turbulence on boundary layer energy exchange, 3) the drought–albedo feedback, and 4) the transition from stomatal to nonstomatal control of plant photosynthesis with increasing drought severity. A prototype of a drought monitoring and forecasting system developed from coupled hydroclimate prediction models and an integrated multisource drought information platform is also briefly introduced. DroughtEX_China lasted for four years (i.e., 2015–18) and its implementation now provides regional drought monitoring and forecasting, risk assessment information, and a multisource data-sharing platform for drought adaptation over northern China, contributing to the global drought information system (GDIS).

Open access
Xin Li, Guodong Cheng, Shaomin Liu, Qing Xiao, Mingguo Ma, Rui Jin, Tao Che, Qinhuo Liu, Weizhen Wang, Yuan Qi, Jianguang Wen, Hongyi Li, Gaofeng Zhu, Jianwen Guo, Youhua Ran, Shuoguo Wang, Zhongli Zhu, Jian Zhou, Xiaoli Hu, and Ziwei Xu

A major research plan entitled “Integrated research on the ecohydrological process of the Heihe River Basin” was launched by the National Natural Science Foundation of China in 2010. One of the key aims of this research plan is to establish a research platform that integrates observation, data management, and model simulation to foster twenty-first-century watershed science in China. Based on the diverse needs of interdisciplinary studies within this research plan, a program called the Heihe Watershed Allied Telemetry Experimental Research (HiWATER) was implemented. The overall objective of HiWATER is to improve the observability of hydrological and ecological processes, to build a world-class watershed observing system, and to enhance the applicability of remote sensing in integrated ecohydrological studies and water resource management at the basin scale. This paper introduces the background, scientific objectives, and experimental design of HiWATER. The instrumental setting and airborne mission plans are also outlined. The highlights are the use of a flux observing matrix and an eco-hydrological wireless sensor network to capture multiscale heterogeneities and to address complex problems, such as heterogeneity, scaling, uncertainty, and closing water cycle at the watershed scale. HiWATER was formally initialized in May 2012 and will last four years until 2015. Data will be made available to the scientific community via the Environmental and Ecological Science Data Center for West China. International scientists are welcome to participate in the field campaign and use the data in their analyses.

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Yihong Duan, Qilin Wan, Jian Huang, Kun Zhao, Hui Yu, Yuqing Wang, Dajun Zhao, Jianing Feng, Jie Tang, Peiyan Chen, Xiaoqin Lu, Yuan Wang, Jianyin Liang, Liguang Wu, Xiaopeng Cui, Jing Xu, and Pak-Wai Chan

Abstract

Landfalling tropical cyclones (TCs) often experience drastic changes in their motion, intensity, and structure due to complex multiscale interactions among atmospheric processes and among the coastal ocean, land, and atmosphere. Because of the lack of comprehensive data and low capability of numerical models, understanding of and ability to predict landfalling TCs are still limited. A 10-yr key research project on landfalling TCs was initiated and launched in 2009 in China. The project has been jointly supported by the China Ministry of Science and Technology, China Meteorological Administration (CMA), Ministry of Education, and Chinese Academy of Sciences. Its mission is to enhance understanding of landfalling TC processes and improve forecasting skills on track, intensity, and distributions of strong winds and precipitation in landfalling TCs. This article provides an overview of the project, together with highlights of some new findings and new technical developments, as well as planned future efforts.

Free access
Ming Feng, Yongliang Duan, Susan Wijffels, Je-Yuan Hsu, Chao Li, Huiwu Wang, Yang Yang, Hong Shen, Jianjun Liu, Chunlin Ning, and Weidong Yu

Abstract

Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) north of Australia in the Indonesian–Australian Basin are significantly influenced by Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO), an eastward-moving atmospheric disturbance that traverses the globe in the tropics. The region also has large-amplitude diurnal SST variations, which may influence the air–sea heat and moisture fluxes, that provide feedback to the MJO evolution. During the 2018/19 austral summer, a field campaign aiming to better understand the influences of air–sea coupling on the MJO was conducted north of Australia in the Indonesian–Australian Basin. Surface meteorology from buoy observations and upper-ocean data from autonomous fast-profiling float observations were collected. Two MJO convective phases propagated eastward across the region in mid-December 2018 and late January 2019 and the second MJO was in conjunction with a tropical cyclone development. Observations showed that SST in the region was rather sensitive to the MJO forcing. Air–sea heat fluxes warmed the SST throughout the 2018/19 austral summer, punctuated by the MJO activities, with a 2°–3°C drop in SST during the two MJO events. Substantial diurnal SST variations during the suppressed phases of the MJOs were observed, and the near-surface thermal stratifications provided positive feedback for the peak diurnal SST amplitude, which may be a mechanism to influence the MJO evolution. Compared to traditionally vessel-based observation programs, we have relied on fast-profiling floats as the main vehicle in measuring the upper-ocean variability from diurnal to the MJO time scales, which may pave the way for using cost-effective technology in similar process studies.

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