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Wei-Chyung Wang, Joseph P. Pinto, and Yuk Ling Yung

FEBRUARY 1980 WANG, PINTO AND YUNG 333Climatic Effects Due to Halogenated Compounds in the Earth's AtmosphereWEI-CHYUNG WANG' AND JOSEPH P. PINTOGoddard Institute for Space Studies, New York, NY 10025 YUK LING YUNG California Institute of Technology, Pasadena 91125(Manuscript received 4 June 1979, in final form 29 August 1979)ABSTRACTUsing a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, we perform a sensitivity study of the effectof ozone depletion in the stratosphere on the surface

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Huiwen Xue and Graham Feingold

suppression, resulting in an additional increase in cloud albedo and cooling (the second aerosol indirect effect). Precipitation suppression due to aerosol and the subsequent increase in the rate of entrainment in stratocumulus may also change cloud depth and hence cloud reflectance. Observational evidence of aerosol effects on clouds abounds. For example, Warner and Twomey (1967) observed decreases in cloud droplet sizes associated with abundant aerosol emanating from sugarcane fires. Warner (1968

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Glen Lesins and Ulrike Lohmann

particle sizes are found over the continents. 6. Conclusions The potential effects of aerosols, both natural and anthropogenic, depend on their chemical and physical properties. Furthermore the aerosol loading depends on the various sources and sinks for each component and their transport and conversion during its residence in the atmosphere. As air quality and climate models become more sophisticated, the treatment of aerosols should incorporate many of these properties and processes. However, the

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R. A. Bryson and G. J. Dittberner

atmosphere leads to a decrease inmean hemispheric surface temperature." That wouldbe directly counter to all the known scientific evidenceabout the effect of CO~ variation. We did say thatwhen the concomitant, related variation of anthropogenic aerosols is taken into account we found a nettemperature decrease associated with the CO~ increase. Continuing with Woronko's comments on our treatment of the role of COs, it would appear that we wouldhave been wise to include more discussion so that

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J. P. Taylor and A. McHaffie

masses; hence, any increase inDMS and CCN, which may result in increased cloudalbedo, could be an important feedback in climatechange. The effects of anthropogenic aerosol on cloudmicrophysics are clearly shown by the ship track phenomenon, which has been studied with aircraft and satellite observations (Coakley et al. 1987; Radke et al.1989). Platnick and Twomey ( 1992, hereafter referred to as PT92) defined a quantity called the cloud susceptibility that relates the sensitivity of cloud albedo

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Robert W. Bergstrom, Philip B. Russell, and Phillip Hignett

1. Introduction Absorption of solar radiation by black carbon (BC) particles is important in understanding the effects of atmospheric particles on climate. Particles with no absorption have a negative (cooling) forcing while particles with substantial absorption can have a positive (warming) forcing. As Heintzenberg et al. (1997) noted, “Even though BC constitutes only a few percent of the aerosol mass, it can have a significant positive forcing.” Simple calculations show that a small amount

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David J. Bodine, Takashi Maruyama, Robert D. Palmer, Caleb J. Fulton, Howard B. Bluestein, and David C. Lewellen

1. Introduction Large amounts of lofted debris are often evident from visual or radar observations of tornadoes. Dust or soil clouds with varied widths, heights, and opacities frequently surround the condensation funnel. Tornadoes can also loft larger debris elements, possibly anthropogenic in origin. While dust and soil particles are small and remain lofted around the tornado, larger debris elements acquire greater radial velocities because of large centrifugal forces and are typically

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J. Li, J. G. D. Wong, J. S. Dobbie, and P. Chýlek

aerosols. Science, 255, 423–430. Chuang, C. C., J. E. Penner, K. E. Taylor, and J. J. Walton, 1994: Climate effects of anthropogenic sulfate: Simulations from a coupled chemistry/climate model. Preprints, Conf. on Atmospheric Chemistry, Nashville, TN, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 170–174. Chýlek, J., and J. G. D. Wong, 1995: Effect of absorbing aerosols on global radiation budget. Geophys. Res. Lett., 22, 929–931. ——, and ——, 1998: Erroneous of the modified Kohler equation in cloud and aerosol

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Joyce E. Penner, Sophia Y. Zhang, Mian Chin, Catherine C. Chuang, Johann Feichter, Yan Feng, Igor V. Geogdzhayev, Paul Ginoux, Michael Herzog, Akiko Higurashi, Dorothy Koch, Christine Land, Ulrike Lohmann, Michael Mishchenko, Teruyuki Nakajima, Giovanni Pitari, Brian Soden, Ina Tegen, and Lawrence Stowe

Experiment (ACE 1). J. Geophys. Res , 103 , 16565 – 16574 . Chin , M. , R. B. Rood , S-J. Lin , J. F. Müller , and A. M. Thompson , 2000 : Atmospheric sulfur cycle simulated in the global model GOCART: Model description and global properties. J. Geophys. Res , 105 , 24671 – 24687 . Chuang , C. C. , J. E. Penner , K. E. Taylor , A. S. Grossman , and J. J. Walton , 1997 : An assessment of the radiative effects of anthropogenic sulfate. J. Geophys. Res , 102 , 3761

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S. Ramachandran

Chennai: II—Sources, anthropogenic influence and model estimates. Atmos. Environ. , 37 , 1951 – 1962 . Ramanathan , V. , and Coauthors , 2001 : Indian Ocean Experiment: An integrated analysis of the climate forcing and effects of the great Indo-Asian haze. J. Geophys. Res. , 106 , 28371 – 28398 . Satheesh , S. K. , and V. Ramanathan , 2000 : Large differences in tropical aerosol radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere and Earth’s surface. Nature , 405 , 60 – 63 . Satheesh

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