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Tomoko Nitta, Kei Yoshimura, and Ayako Abe-Ouchi

of dispersion for Northern Hemisphere summer temperatures in CMIP5 experiments. In this study, we focused on surface hydrology after snowmelt and examined the effects of snow-fed wetlands that constitute storage on surface hydrology and climate. Wetlands, aside from lakes and reservoirs, cover more than 5% of the land area globally, and their distribution peaks at high northern latitudes, despite a large uncertainty ( Lehner and Döll 2004 ). The role of wetlands is important in surface hydrology

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Xueli Huo, Zhongfang Liu, Qingyun Duan, Pengmei Hao, Yanyan Zhang, Yonghong Hao, and Hongbin Zhan

means for detrending that removes anthropogenic effects ( Hanson et al. 2004 ). In the NS basin, the rates of decline for spring discharge have slowed down over time because of the recent implementation of sustainable development and groundwater resource conservation policies ( China Preparatory Committee 2012 ). The long-term trend (exponential function) is subtracted from the NS discharge, and the residual of the spring discharge (i.e., detrended spring discharge, hereafter referred to as spring

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Ingjerd Haddeland, Douglas B. Clark, Wietse Franssen, Fulco Ludwig, Frank Voß, Nigel W. Arnell, Nathalie Bertrand, Martin Best, Sonja Folwell, Dieter Gerten, Sandra Gomes, Simon N. Gosling, Stefan Hagemann, Naota Hanasaki, Richard Harding, Jens Heinke, Pavel Kabat, Sujan Koirala, Taikan Oki, Jan Polcher, Tobias Stacke, Pedro Viterbo, Graham P. Weedon, and Pat Yeh

into account anthropogenic impacts such as water withdrawals and dams. Hence, WaterMIP provides an opportunity to compare results of LSMs and GHMs, focusing on differences between the two model strategies, while additionally investigating the effects of anthropogenic impacts on the global terrestrial water balance. Estimates of water availability and stress, as well as the uncertainties thereof, will also be compared for both current and future conditions. Using a range of model simulations, the

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M. Todd Walter, Daniel S. Wilks, J-Yves Parlange, and Rebecca L. Schneider

could include effects from human activities, which have the potential to alter substantially the hydrological cycle, especially irrigation (e.g., Kondolf and Vorster 1993 ; Kendy et al. 2003 ). Unfortunately, “undisturbed” systems are not widely available. However, anecdotal evidence from largely undisturbed, nonglacial southeast Alaskan streams, in which long-term streamflow has been relatively stable while precipitation has increased ( Neal et al. 2002 ), suggests that increases in actual ET are

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Huade Guan, Xinping Zhang, Oleg Makhnin, and Zhian Sun

1. Introduction Air temperature is an important state variable resulting from complex land surface and atmosphere interactions. It is related to both water cycles and energy balance on Earth and also influences carbon cycles through vegetation biophysical responses ( Berry and Bjorkman 1980 ; Pfautsch et al. 2010 ). Air temperature is the most important component of global climate change and is sensitive to local anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., land-use and land-cover changes) ( Hansen et al

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Yangyang Li, Yingxin Zhu, Lei Chen, and Zhenyao Shen

caused considerable variation in the period of daily mean discharge in the middle and lower reaches of the river. According to water-level scheduling, water is stored in the TGD in winter and released from the TGD in summer. Yang et al. (2015) argued that the seasonal effects of impoundment and release affect short-term discharge but not overall annual flow. It is therefore possible that there are changes in monthly or seasonal flows that are not detectable at the annual scale. Streamflow changes

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Eleanor J. Burke, Simon J. Brown, and Nikolaos Christidis

evapotranspiration ( E p ) is key in calculating the PDSI. The Thornthwaite (1948) method, based on knowledge of the temperature and latitude, is traditionally used to calculate E p in the PDSI. This calculation implicitly assumes some form of correlation between potential evapotranspiration, temperature, and the shortwave radiation at each latitude. Under future climate scenarios the temperature is predicted to increase while shortwave radiation is relatively independent of climatic effects. Therefore, the

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Joe M. Osborne, F. Hugo Lambert, Margriet Groenendijk, Anna B. Harper, Charles D. Koven, Benjamin Poulter, Thomas A. M. Pugh, Stephen Sitch, Benjamin D. Stocker, Andy Wiltshire, and Sönke Zaehle

anthropogenic influences on the hydrological cycle. Recent work by Osborne and Lambert (2014 , hereafter OL14) showed that observed Northern Hemisphere midlatitude (NHML) land mean precipitation changes contain no evidence of a response to sharply increasing aerosol emissions in the mid-twentieth century ( Lamarque et al. 2010 ). The NHML region was the main source of these emissions, which led to a well understood decrease in observed precipitation over the remote Northern Hemisphere tropical land

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Qiuhong Tang, Huilin Gao, Pat Yeh, Taikan Oki, Fengge Su, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

reasonable TWS estimates must result at regional scales. This argument has been made elsewhere (e.g., Maurer et al. 2002 ). In our view, the main limitation in using modeled TWS is in a river basin where water management (e.g., man-made reservoirs and irrigation water withdrawals) substantially affect the land surface hydrological dynamics, as these effects are not represented in most land surface models. An alternative to using offline land surface simulations is to use model output from coupled model

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Fiona Johnson and Ashish Sharma

: Evaluation over Australia. Geophys. Res. Lett. , 33 , L17715 . doi:10.1029/2006GL027114 . 10.1029/2006GL027114 Rotstayn, L. D. , and Coauthors , 2007 : Have Australian rainfall and cloudiness increased due to the remote effects of Asian anthropogenic aerosols. J. Geophys. Res. , 112 , D09202 . doi:10.1029/2006JD007712 . Seidel, D. J. , Fu Q. , Randel W. J. , and Reichler T. J. , 2008 : Widening of the tropical belt in a changing climate. Nature Geosci. , 1 , 21 – 24 . 10

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