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Alvin J. Miller

, year-to-year variations of the energy flux are examined. The best correlation between theupward flux of kinetic energy and the quasi-biennial oscillation of the tropical zonal wind at 10 mb is foundin wavenumber 1 with maximum flux occurring 4-6 months previous to the maximum easterly winds. Theamplitude of this variation in energy flux is the same order of magnitude as current estimates of the yearlyenergy convergence between 100 and 30 rob.1. Introduction As has been consistently demonstrated

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Le Kuai, Run-Lie Shia, Xun Jiang, Ka-Kit Tung, and Yuk L. Yung

wind and temperature harmonic amplitudes and phases in the stratosphere and low mesosphere of the Northern Hemisphere. J. Geophys. Res. , 75 , 543 – 550 . Baldwin , M. P. , and T. J. Dunkerton , 1999 : Propagation of the Arctic Oscillation from the stratosphere to the troposphere. J. Geophys. Res. , 104 , (D24) . 30937 – 30946 . Baldwin , M. P. , and L. J. Gray , 2005 : Tropical stratospheric zonal winds in ECMWF ERA-40 reanalysis, rocketsonde data, and rawinsonde data

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Jingqian Wang, Steven Pawson, Baijun Tian, Mao-Chang Liang, Run-Lie Shia, Yuk L. Yung, and Xun Jiang

1. Introduction The influence of El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) on the sea surface temperature (SST), surface pressure, winds, and convection is well known (e.g., Trenberth and Shea 1987 ; Trenberth 1997 ). During El Niño events, temperature in the lower stratospheric is reduced in the tropics and increased in the Arctic ( Garcia-Herrera et al. 2006 ; Free and Seidel 2009 ). Using a multiple regression method, Hood et al. (2010) found that ENSO can influence ozone volume mixing ratios

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Y. Hayashi and D. G. Golder

., 1986: A new convective adjustment scheme. Part I: Observational and theoretical basis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112, 677–691. ——, and M. J. Miller, 1986: A new convective adjustment scheme. Part II: Single column tests using GATE waves, BOMEX, ATEX and arctic air-mass data sets. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 112, 693–709. Blade, I., and D. L. Hartmann, 1993: Tropical intraseasonal oscillations in a simple nonlinear model. J. Atmos. Sci., 50, 2922–2939. Boville, B. A., and W. J

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R. S. Quiroz, A. J. Miller, and R. M. Nagatani

except possibly at very high stratosphericor mesospheric altitudes. Significant distortion orelongation of the polar vortex may occur, however,at lower stratospheric altitudes, as in the severalminor cases given in Table 1. Examination of the thermal behavior in northeastSiberia (Fig. 2) suggests that what we call minorand major warmings may simply consist of highamplitude events in a pattern of repeating oscillations with a period of about 15 days. This figureshows the VTPR Channel 2 radiance

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Thomas Reichler and John O. Roads

condition information was provided. Interestingly, ENSO also had some influence on the polarity of the AAO, presumably through the teleconnection into the PSA region. From the limited number of samples, it seems that a positive (negative) AAO phase was more likely during warm (cold) years. d. Arctic Oscillation We repeated the above analysis for the Northern Hemispheric counterpart of the AAO, the so-called Arctic Oscillation (AO; e.g. Thompson and Wallace 2000 ). The AO was defined as the leading mode

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Yueyue Yu, Ming Cai, Rongcai Ren, and Huug M. van den Dool

patterns in the extratropical tropospheric winter. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) tends to be in its negative phase 3–6 days prior to the onset of cold air outbreaks over the United States and Eurasia ( Walsh et al. 2001 ; Cellitti et al. 2006 ). The Arctic Oscillation (AO), or the tropospheric northern annular mode (NAM), also has a close relation with extreme temperature events in winter over Eurasia and North America on intraseasonal and longer time scales ( Thompson and Wallace 1998

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Torben Kunz, Klaus Fraedrich, and Frank Lunkeit

, Wittman et al. (2004 , 2007) also interpret their results in the context of stratosphere–troposphere coupling (although the tropospheric response to baroclinic wave breaking is associated with the surface annular mode or Arctic oscillation rather than the NAO). However, there are considerable differences in comparison with the present study: (i) Whereas Wittman et al. (2004) , using an experimental setup that basically corresponds to our S75T00 case, essentially find synoptic-scale changes in the

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A. A. Scaife, N. Butchart, C. D. Warner, and R. Swinbank

(1968) highlighted the importance of forcing from gravity waves in the Tropics by showing how these waves could force the quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO). It has also become apparent that observed planetary-scale waves in the lower tropical stratosphere carry insufficient momentum flux to drive the observed oscillation (e.g., Takahashi and Boville 1992 ; Dunkerton 1997 ). In light of estimates of vertical momentum flux from mesoscale models of tropical storms ( Alexander and Holton 1997 ) and

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Sebastien Fromang and Gwendal Rivière

.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<0163:TATERT>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1989)046<0163:TATERT>2.0.CO;2 Henderson , G. R. , B. S. Barrett , and D. M. Lafleur , 2014 : Arctic sea ice and the Madden-Julian oscillation (MJO) . Climate Dyn. , 43 , 2185 – 2196 , https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-013-2043-y . 10.1007/s00382-013-2043-y Henderson , S. A. , E. D. Maloney , and E. A. Barnes , 2016 : The influence of the Madden–Julian oscillation on Northern Hemisphere winter blocking . J. Climate , 29 , 4597 – 4616 , https

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