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John P. Kochendorfer and Jorge A. Ramírez

1. Introduction Since the seminal work of Charney et al. (1977) , land-surface feedbacks have increasingly been recognized as significant sources of atmospheric variability. Soil moisture is perhaps the most important mediator of these feedbacks. In this paper, we examine the impact of land–atmosphere interactions on the temporal variability of regional-scale spatial averages of soil moisture. Our approach first formulates a large-scale, lumped-parameter water-balance model as an ordinary

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Edward G. Patton, Peter P. Sullivan, Roger H. Shaw, John J. Finnigan, and Jeffrey C. Weil

/NCEP–Oregon State University–Air Force Research Laboratory–NOAA/Office of Hydrology land surface model (Noah) serves as the primary basis describing the coupling between the atmosphere and the land surface. Noah is designed for weather forecasting focusing on hydrologic coupling in the soil–water–vegetation system ( Chen et al. 1996 ; Chen and Dudhia 2001 ; Ek et al. 2003 ). In its standard form (e.g., Ek et al. 2003 ), Noah’s canopy exchanges heat and moisture as a single “big leaf” and assumes that emitted

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Danlu Cai, Klaus Fraedrich, Frank Sielmann, Ling Zhang, Xiuhua Zhu, Shan Guo, and Yanning Guan

et al. 1997 ). In these regions, phenology controls the seasonal onset and ending of the carbon uptake period, thereby directly affecting net ecosystem carbon balance ( Barr et al. 2009 ; Goulden et al. 1998 ; Richardson et al. 2010 ; Cong et al. 2013 ) and the exchange of water and energy with the atmosphere ( Peñuelas et al. 2009 ). Both climate change and anthropogenic activities are known to have an impact on plant dynamics ( Hu et al. 2012 ; Serra et al. 2008 ; Wang et al. 2008 ; Piao

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Danlu Cai, Klaus Fraedrich, Frank Sielmann, Yanning Guan, and Shan Guo

1. Introduction Climate change and land use have an impact on catchment water balance and hence on water yield and groundwater recharge ( Barnett et al. 2008 ; Milly et al. 2007 ; Voepel et al. 2011 ; Wagener et al. 2010 ; Zhang et al. 2001 ). Early quantitative analyses of rainfall–runoff chain dynamics on watershed scales as part of the climate system have employed the Budyko (1974) framework, which is centered on the aridity index relating water demand to supply combining energy and

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C.-H. Ho, S.-J. Park, S.-J. Jeong, J. Kim, and J.-G. Jhun

possibility of the cropland–atmosphere feedback was investigated by Cooley et al. (2005) using a coupled regional atmosphere–land model. Comparing the regional climate of early harvested cropland with that of late harvested cropland, they showed that near-bare-soil conditions between the two growing seasons lead to an increase of the surface air and soil temperatures by magnitudes comparable to that induced by land-cover changes. Previous observational studies that systematically examine the

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Young-Kwon Lim, Ming Cai, Eugenia Kalnay, and Liming Zhou

global climate change detection. J. Climate , 13 , 3187 – 3205 . Dai , A. , K. E. Trenberth , and T. Qian , 2004 : A global dataset of Palmer drought severity index for 1870–2002: Relationship with soil moisture and effects of surface warming. J. Hydrometeor. , 5 , 1117 – 1130 . Diffenbaugh , N. S. , 2005 : Atmosphere–land cover feedbacks alter the response of surface temperature to CO 2 forcing in the western United States. Climate Dyn. , 24 , 237 – 251 . Easterling , D. R

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Theodore J. Bohn and Enrique R. Vivoni

seasonality of their irrigation inputs were inaccurate, calling their findings into question. We deem this important since the sensitivity of the NAM climate system to land cover change has not been established. These inaccuracies have two main causes: 1) the assumption that pixels classified as “irrigated cropland” are irrigated during the summer and 2) an outdated land cover map that misrepresents agricultural districts. The largest source of error in the study is the mischaracterization of the seasonal

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Michael G. Bosilovich and Wen-yih Sun

Beljaars et al. (1996) ( Seth and Giorgi 1997 ). In this paper, Purdue Regional Model (PRM) numerical simulations of the 1993 Midwestern floods are presented and the model’s sensitivity to land surface and planetary boundary layer processes are examined. The following section outlines the numerical simulations and experimentation. Section 3 presents the model representation of the atmospheric circulation and its comparison to observations. Finally, the interaction between the model surface, boundary

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Robbie A. Hember and Peter M. Lafleur

-term measurements of land-atmosphere fluxes of carbon and water. Global Change Biol. , 2 , 231 – 240 . Morgenstern , K. , and Coauthors , 2004 : Sensitivity and uncertainty of the carbon balance of a Pacific Northwest Douglas-fir forest during an El Niño/La Niña cycle. Agric. For. Meteor. , 123 , 201 – 219 . Newman , M. , G. P. Compo , and M. A. Alexander , 2003 : ENSO-forced variability of the Pacific decadal oscillation. J. Climate , 16 , 3853 – 3857 . North , G. R. , T. L. Bell

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Nuria Vargas and Víctor Magaña

rural and urban regions. The MCMA is located in the lower part of the valley of Mexico, surrounded by mountains ( Fig. 1 ). The temperature decreases with height, resulting in a natural large thermal gradient between the lower and higher parts. But the MCMA UHI has formed mainly in relation to land-use changes, from natural vegetation to urban infrastructure. Therefore, the UHI may be defined as a canopy-layer UHI ( Oke et al. 2017 ), where deforestation and urbanization enhance the local warming

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