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Yue Sun, Jing-Wu Liu, and Shang-Ping Xie

1. Introduction Satellites have revealed a salient precipitation band residing just over the Gulf Stream ( Hobbs 1987 ; Minobe et al. 2008 ), which is the strongest oceanic western boundary current in the Northern Hemisphere ( Tomczak and Godfrey 2003 ). In winter, the precipitation over the Gulf Stream releases a huge amount of latent heat into the atmosphere ( Bane and Osgood 1989 ) and strongly influences regional climate and weather ( Hamilton 1981 ; Forbes et al. 1997 ; Pfahl et al

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, and Takafumi Miyasaka

1. Introduction Satellite and in situ observations have captured local augmentation in time-mean surface wind convergence along the warm midlatitude western boundary currents (WBCs), including the Kuroshio Extension (KE), Gulf Stream (GS), and Agulhas Return Current (ARC), and divergence slightly poleward (e.g., Tokinaga et al. 2005 ; Minobe et al. 2008 , 2010 ; O’Neill et al. 2003 , 2005 ; Nkwinkwa Njouodo et al. 2018 ). The surface wind convergence accompanies local enhancement in

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Michael A. Spall

advection also appears to be important for less geographically constrained regions of buoyancy loss such as the Nordic seas ( Mauritzen 1996 ) and the Labrador Sea ( Katsman et al. 2004 ; Lilly et al. 2003 ; Straneo 2004, manuscript submitted to J. Phys. Oceanogr. ). Understanding the interaction between the narrow boundary currents that are required to balance the net buoyancy flux and the vast interior regions over which there are significant surface fluxes is key to understanding the heat budget in

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Hsien Wang Ou and Wilhelmus P. M. De Ruijter

280 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 16Separation of an Inertial Boundary Current from a Curved Coastline* HSIEN WANG OULamont-Doherty Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades, NY 10964 WILHELMUS P. M. DE RULITERRijkswaterstaat/Deltaservice, Fan Alkemadelaan 400, 2597 A T Den Haag, The Netherlands (Manuscri~ received 11 March 1985, in final form 29 August 1985) A two-layer model

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Vitalii A. Sheremet

from every gap in a ridge (see also Pedlosky 1994 ). How does inertia change this picture? The same questions are pertinent to the oceanic surface flows around island chains, like Hawaii ( Qiu et al. 1997 ). Pedlosky and Spall (1999) , using a linear theory, obtained an interesting result: that Rossby waves can easily penetrate (without much decrease in amplitude) through boundaries having multiple gaps. How will the flow change if inertia is included? On larger spatial scales, the Loop Current

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Joseph Pedlosky

OCTOBER 1991 JOSEPH PEDLOSKY 1553The Link between Western Boundary Currents and Equatorial Undercurrents* JOSEPH PEDLOSKYDepartment of Physical Oceanography, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, Woods Hole, Massachusetts(Manuscript received 26 September 1990, in final form 14 March 1991) ABSTRACT A constant potential vorticity model is used to investigate

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J. Verron and E. Blayo

physical issue here is to adequately represent the dynamical effect of the viscous boundary layerthrough the production of adverse vorticity at the coast. It is shown that the accuracy in the numerical evaluationof the boundary vorticity may influence the separation latitude of western boundary currents. Several numericalschemes for the no-slip boundary condition are investigated, including one specifically derived from simpleboundary-layer theory. This simple analytical model can actually be seen as a

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David J. Webb

-type 1 western boundary current dominated by bottom friction. However, bottom friction is unlikely to be involved because the depth is too great (1400 m at the current maximum and increasing rapidly offshore) and there is additional evidence for a countercurrent at 1000 m. Bottom friction also cannot explain the current maximum. A current maximum can be produced by a Munk-type western boundary current theory using constant horizontal viscosity. However, as shown in Fig. 1 , if the Munk solution is

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Ryusuke Masunaga, Hisashi Nakamura, Bunmei Taguchi, and Takafumi Miyasaka

1. Introduction The midlatitude western boundary currents, which flow poleward along the western flank of each of the ocean basins, transport an enormous amount of heat from the tropics, releasing it into the midlatitude atmosphere in the form of turbulent sensible heat flux (SHF) and latent heat flux (LHF) while maintaining relatively warm sea surface temperature (SST) along their axes. The midlatitude oceanic frontal zones, which are characterized by steep gradients in SST along the poleward

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G. T. Csanady

462 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLUME 19Energy Dissipation and Upwelling in a Western Boundary Current G. T. CSANADYOld Dominion University, Department of Oceanography, Norfolk, Virginia(Manuscript received 6 June i .988, in final form 26 September 1988) ABSTRAC'F Energy dissipation in a we~ern boundary current begins with the conversion of mean potential

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