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Wade T. Crow, Concepcion Arroyo Gomez, Joaquín Muñoz Sabater, Thomas Holmes, Christopher R. Hain, Fangni Lei, Jianzhi Dong, Joseph G. Alfieri, and Martha C. Anderson

analysis that reflects the best-available estimate of current soil moisture conditions based on all prior information. Specifically, SM analyses represent volumetric soil moisture (m 3 m −3 ) content at 0000 UTC for three vertical HTESSEL soil layers (0–7, 7–28, and 28–100 cm). Our period of interest is the 2012 and 2013 growing seasons (1 May–30 September). Unfortunately, 2012 ET and SM OL fields were lost during the cyclical purging of experimental results at ECMWF. Therefore, 2012 results shown

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Jefferson S. Wong, Xuebin Zhang, Shervan Gharari, Rajesh R. Shrestha, Howard S. Wheater, and James S. Famiglietti

for land cover, albedo, leaf area index, and enhanced vegetation index. Mu et al. (2011) have further improved the ET algorithm by considering vegetation cover fraction, soil heat flux, daytime and nighttime evapotranspiration, including evaporation from wet canopy surfaces and from saturated wet soil surfaces, and improving calculations of stomatal conductance, aerodynamic resistance and boundary layer resistance. Hereafter we call this ET product MODIS. 2) GLEAM The Global Land Evaporation

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Steven M. Martinaitis, Andrew P. Osborne, Micheal J. Simpson, Jian Zhang, Kenneth W. Howard, Stephen B. Cocks, Ami Arthur, Carrie Langston, and Brian T. Kaney

-on-Forecast (WoF) system by Lawson et al. (2018) demonstrated the significant progress made with 0–3-h QPFs via advanced data assimilation methods; moreover, Lundquist et al. (2019) describes how high-resolution NWP models can better represent total annual precipitation than the current collection of gauge observations in mountainous terrain. Numerous studies assessed the quality of polar-orbiting and geostationary satellite-derived QPEs and discussed the potential for satellite-derived fields to mitigate

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Abhishekh Kumar Srivastava, Richard Grotjahn, Paul Aaron Ullrich, and Mojtaba Sadegh

–2005) and RCP8.5 (2049–2098) simulations of regional climate models at 0.22° grid spacing in the NA-CORDEX ( Mearns et al. 2017 ). The 12 RCMs analyzed here are run with boundary conditions from four GCM simulations from the fifth phase of the Climate Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5) archive ( Taylor et al. 2012 ). The list of RCMs with their host institutions is given in Table 1 . Detailed information on the RCMs, such as dynamical core, model components, model physics and parameterization

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Maryam A. Lamjiri, F. Martin Ralph, and Michael D. Dettinger

experiencing R-CAT events historically has been farther west, nearer the northwestern boundary of Texas (see Fig. 3a ), so that using 100°W would have artificially added eastern R-CAT events to the western totals. Instead, in RD12 and the present study, the dashed red meridian at 105°W is used as the dividing line. (b) Annual number of stations in eastern and western United States that meet the requirement of having at least 50 years of less than 20% missing values each year. The jump in 2010 is an

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Natalie Teale and David A. Robinson

study period (14 245 days) and was adjusted over 10 000 iterations. The study area used for the SOM classification was the same as the ERA-Interim reanalysis-derived IVT (30°–50°N and 60°–90°W boundary, 2.5° × 2.5° spatial resolution). A pilot study indicated that a smaller area focused directly over the Northeast did not sufficiently capture the character of the moisture fluxes influencing the area. Midlevel atmospheric pressure composites of 500 mb geopotential height from ECMWF ERA

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Anna-Maria Tilg, Flemming Vejen, Charlotte Bay Hasager, and Morten Nielsen

. Criteria used for quality control of the LPM disdrometer data. In some cases, e.g., criterion 9 in Table 2 , quality control by simple boundaries is not satisfying ( Larsen and Schönhuber 2018 ). Small drops with a terminal velocity outside a specific range of the terminal velocity can be drops splashed from the housing as mentioned for example by Angulo-Martínez et al. (2018) . Montero-Martínez et al. (2009) and Montero-Martínez and García-García (2016) investigate the physical background of

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Witold F. Krajewski, Ganesh R. Ghimire, and Felipe Quintero

.g., Villarini et al. 2011a , 2013 ; Mallakpour and Villarini 2015 ; Villarini et al. 2011b ). The U.S. Geological Survey currently operates about 140 stream gauges in the state ( Fig. 1 ), which provide 15-min resolution stage data that can be converted to discharge using well-maintained and frequently updated rating curves. The USGS record of 15-min data has only 17 years but we claim that this is sufficient to illustrate the objectives of our study. Though the Iowa Flood Center has added 250 stage

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Guoqiang Tang, Martyn P. Clark, and Simon Michael Papalexiou

Tmin occurs during the night and represents the temperature of the nocturnal boundary layer, which is thicker than the daytime mixed layer ( Klotzbach et al. 2009 ). Local factors such as land-cover types have more impact on Tmin and its variability than Tmax ( Pena-Angulo et al. 2015 ). The spatial correlation length of Tmin could also be shorter than that of Tmax ( Pena-Angulo et al. 2015 ; Tang et al. 2020 ). Therefore, Tmax could be less demanding for station densities in spatial interpolation

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Sha Lu, Marie-claire ten Veldhuis, and Nick van de Giesen

( Mathugama and Peiris 2011 ). For the determination of CWD, a 5-day moving average was used instead of daily rainfall accumulation, which allows to better account for severe prolonged wet spells. The 5-day moving average of the current day is the mean of the previous 5 days in this study. The indicators of dry spell and wet spell are given by CDD10/CDD20: the occurrences are counted of days in a period where there are at least 10 or 20 consecutive dry days with precipitation less than 0.1 mm; CWD10/CWD20

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