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David R. Doelling, Conor O. Haney, Benjamin R. Scarino, Arun Gopalan, and Rajendra Bhatt

−2 sr −1 μ m −1 , the VZA and RAA are matched within 5° and 10°, respectively. Otherwise, the VZA and RAA matching criteria remain unchanged at 15°. This strategy preserves all of the bright cloud ray-matched pairs but tightens the angular restrictions for dark scenes. Figure 2a reveals that the force and linear fits are more consistent after applying GAM, and that the linear regression offset of 34.3 is closer to the actual space count of 29 as compared with Fig. 1a . GAM eliminated nearly

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Sabrina Schnitt, Ulrich Löhnert, and René Preusker

boundary layers and enhance the synergistic effects, the effects of additional constraining tools will be analyzed: reducing retrieval states by parameterizing the profiles in sub-, in-, and above cloud; including the surface temperature and the assumption of a well-mixed BL under cloud base; forcing humidity saturation within the cloud layer through a simultaneous temperature profiling retrieval; using cloud-top height as a proxy for the inversion layer height; and analyzing the retrieval performance

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T. A. Tarasova and B. A. Fomin

increase in the number of its spectral bands and k -distribution terms, jointly named as pseudomonochromatic intervals (PMIs). Unfortunately, this led to an increase of the codes’ computational time because of the need to repeat radiative transfer calculations for each PMI. Note that due to the computational cost of the current radiation codes, the radiation forcing in GCMs is computed less frequently than dynamics or other physical processes. The negative effect of such economies on the model results

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Wynn L. Eberhard

at two CO2 lidar wavelengths issubstantially different from the ratio from water drops. This forms the basis for a new method to discriminatebetween ice, water, and mixed-phase clouds. (The polarization technique often used by lidars operating in ornear the visible part of the spectrum is not effective for CO2 lidars, because depolarization from ice 0articles isusually very small at its infrared wavelength.) The effects of particle size distribution, differential attenuationin the cloud and clear

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Theodore M. McHardy, James R. Campbell, David A. Peterson, Simone Lolli, Richard L. Bankert, Anne Garnier, Arunas P. Kuciauskas, Melinda L. Surratt, Jared W. Marquis, Steven D. Miller, Erica K. Dolinar, and Xiquan Dong

, transparent cirrus mask, and estimated COD images are shown for a sector encompassing the western Atlantic for 1830:49 UTC 16 August 2018 in Fig. 14 . This region often contains cirrus clouds that originate from convective anvil blow off, synoptic-scale forcing, and processes in the tropical tropopause transition layer (TTL; Virts et al. 2010 ). Figures 14a and 14b , indicate a variety of meteorological features, cloud types, and the general presence of overlying cirrus clouds in portions of the region

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Tyler J. Thorsen, Qiang Fu, Rob K. Newsom, David D. Turner, and Jennifer M. Comstock

: A review and current assessment . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 72 , 1848 – 1866 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0477(1991)072<1848:TPLTFC>2.0.CO;2 . Sassen, K. , 2002 : Indirect climate forcing over the western US from Asian dust storms . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 29 , 103-1 – 103-4 , doi: 10.1029/2001GL014051 . Stephens, G. L. , and Coauthors , 2002 : The CloudSat mission and the A-Train—A new dimension of space-based observations of clouds and precipitation . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 83 , 1771

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F. Tornow, C. Domenech, J. N. S. Cole, N. Madenach, and J. Fischer

budget and cloud forcing . J. Geophys. Res. , 97 , 18 061 – 18 081 , . 10.1029/92JD01631 Brenguier , J.-L. , H. Pawlowska , L. Schüller , R. Preusker , J. Fischer , and Y. Fouquart , 2000 : Radiative properties of boundary layer clouds: Droplet effective radius versus number concentration . J. Atmos. Sci. , 57 , 803 – 821 ,<0803:RPOBLC>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(2000)057<0803:RPOBLC>2.0.CO;2

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Fang Pan, Seiji Kato, Fred G. Rose, Alexander Radkevich, Xu Liu, and Xianglei Huang

: Determining longwave forcing and feedback using infrared spectra and GNSS radio occultation . J. Climate , 23 , 6027 – 6035 , . 10.1175/2010JCLI3588.1 Irion , F. W. , and Coauthors , 2018 : Single-footprint retrievals of temperature, water vapor, and cloud properties from AIRS . Atmos. Meas. Tech. , 11 , 971 – 995 , . 10.5194/amt-11-971-2018 Jin , Z. , B. A. Wielicki , C. Loukachine , T. P. Charlock , D

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Luc R. Bissonnette, Gilles Roy, and Grégoire Tremblay

applications. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the potential of multiple field-of-view (MFOV) lidars to provide good quality, high-resolution data on cloud geometry and structure for real time and statistical uses. Such lidars could be easily integrated into ground-based, ship-based, and even airborne remote sensing stations. Low-level clouds are generally optically dense. In such media, light scattering, which is the driving force of lidars, can occur several times before being collected. These

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G. Guo and J. A. Coakley Jr.

., , Tahnk W. R. , Jayaraman A. , Quinn P. K. , Devaux C. , and Tanré D. , 2002 : Aerosol optical depths and direct radiative forcing for INDOEX derived from AVHRR: Theory. J. Geophys. Res. , 107 . 8009, doi:10.1029/2000JD000182 . Cronin, M. F. , Bond N. A. , Fairall C. W. , and Weller R. A. , 2006 : Surface cloud forcing in the east Pacific stratus deck/cold tongue/ITCZ complex. J. Climate , 19 , 392 – 409 . 10.1175/JCLI3620.1 Fairall, C. W. , Persson P. O. G. , Bradley E

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