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Pieter Groenemeijer, Tomáš Púčik, Alois M. Holzer, Bogdan Antonescu, Kathrin Riemann-Campe, David M. Schultz, Thilo Kühne, Bernold Feuerstein, Harold E. Brooks, Charles A. Doswell III, Hans-Joachim Koppert, and Robert Sausen

The European Severe Storms Laboratory studies severe weather, climate, and forecasting; organizes forecaster training; and manages a large database of severe weather reports. During the second half of the twentieth century, research on convective storms was relatively scarce and uncoordinated in Europe compared to efforts in the United States ( Dotzek et al. 2009 ; Antonescu et al. 2016 ). Scientific and forecasting practice was hampered by the fragmentation of research by national borders and

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Erik W. Kolstad, Stefan P. Sobolowski, and Adam A. Scaife

1. Introduction In recent years, severe weather anomalies in Europe have received considerable attention, mostly because of their detrimental impacts on human and natural systems but also because of the apparent persistence of weather patterns over weeks and even months. The cold winter of 2009/10 ( Fereday et al. 2012 ) and the warm summer of 2003 ( Black et al. 2004 ) are cases in point. Temperature fluctuations in northern Europe (NE) are clearly associated with anomalies in the North

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Paolo Davini, Chiara Cagnazzo, Silvio Gualdi, and Antonio Navarra

different areas of the Northern Hemisphere through the definition of a new series of bidimensional diagnostics all based on the Z 500 field. We will compare results from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ), the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Re-Analysis (ERA-40) ( Uppala et al. 2005 ) and the ECMWF ERA-Interim ( Simmons et al. 2007 ) to evaluate the sensitivity of our

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Mateusz Taszarek and Harold E. Brooks

1. Introduction Severe weather phenomena (e.g., large hail, tornadoes) associated with deep, moist convection create a threat to life and property. Tornado forecasting and risk estimation face many difficulties because of the lack of observational data and the incomplete understanding of physical processes leading to tornadogenesis. In Europe, tornadoes are not as frequent as in the United States ( Groenemeijer and Kühne 2014 ), and because of temporal and spatial inhomogeneities it is a

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Ivan Güttler, Igor Stepanov, Čedo Branković, Grigory Nikulin, and Colin Jones

, particularly in the coastal and complex orography regions (e.g., Grell et al. 2000 ; Seth et al. 2007 ; van Roosmalen et al. 2010 ; Rauscher et al. 2010 ; Di Luca et al. 2012 ), further motivates the use and development of RCMs. Consistent with numerical weather prediction, a tendency is seen in climate research to increase the RCM resolution, for example, in major projects concerning the modeling of European climate: a 50-km resolution was used for RCM simulations in the PRUDENCE project

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Qiuhong Tang, Guoyong Leng, and Pavel Ya. Groisman

1. Introduction In the last decade, Europe has experienced record-breaking heat waves and temperature-related mortality ( Patz et al. 2005 ; D’Ippoliti et al. 2010 ; Fischer and Schär 2010 ; Barriopedro et al. 2011 ). The heat waves are sometime considered as an example of hot summers under enhanced greenhouse gas concentrations ( Klein-Tank et al. 2005 ; Stott et al. 2004 ). A number of works have investigated the factors contributing to such extreme events ( Meehl and Tebaldi 2004

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Margarita Chernavskaya

JULY 1996 CHERNAVSKAYA 1059Weather Conditions of 1695-96 in European Russia MARGARITA CHERNAVSKAYALaboratory of Dynamical and Historical Climatology, Institute of Geography Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia(Manuscript received 8 May 1995, in final form 27 November 1995)ABSTRACT The Russian chronicles and the diaries of Czar Peter the Great were used to describe

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Christoph Gatzen

overview In the second week of July, the upper- and midtropospheric flow over Europe was dominated by an intense trough across the northwestern part of the continent, yielding a deep southwesterly flow over the western regions ( Fig. 1a ). Over south-central Europe, the flow was split into two branches, a northern branch, which stretched from France and Benelux to the North Sea, and a second branch, which deviated toward the central Mediterranean, where it formed a weak ridge. Along the periphery of

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Thomas Bosshard, Sven Kotlarski, Massimiliano Zappa, and Christoph Schär

the topography and hydrological characteristics of the catchment considered. In snowmelt-dominated basins, for instance, the expected temperature increase will impact snow accumulation and melt dynamics and can cause important changes of the annual discharge regime ( Barnett et al. 2005 ). This study assesses the hydrological changes in the Rhine basin, induced by projected twenty-first-century climate changes. The Rhine basin is one of the largest river systems in central Europe. It drains into

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Adam A. Scaife, Chris K. Folland, Lisa V. Alexander, Anders Moberg, and Jeff R. Knight

1. Introduction In the last decade there has been much interest in assessing whether climatic extremes have been changing because changes in temperature and rainfall extremes, in particular, are expected to be an important result of greenhouse warming on multicontinental to global scales ( Karl et al. 1995 ; Frich et al. 2002 ; Kiktev et al. 2003 ; Groisman et al. 2005 ; Alexander et al. 2006 ) and for Europe (e.g., Klein Tank et al. 2002 ; Klein Tank and Können 2003 ; Moberg et al. 2006

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