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Sunwook Park and Xiaoqing Wu

(2004) also examined the relationship between surface albedo and cloud radiative forcing (CF) over an Arctic region using the cloud and radiation dataset from the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic (SHEBA) program. For middle latitude cases, some research groups have investigated various surface-albedo-related phenomena. Grant et al. (2000) examined the dependence of clear-sky albedo on the SZA by observing the daily variation of surface albedo at Uardry in southeastern Australia. Considering the

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Jian Sheng and Jacques Derome

I MARCH 1993 SHENG AND DEROME 757Dynamic Forcing of the Slow Transients by Synoptic-Scale Eddies: An Observational Study JIAN SHENG AND JACQUES DEROMEDepartment of Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences and Centre for Climate and Global Change Research, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada (Manuscript received 12 September 1991, in final form 12 May

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Steven M. Cavallo and Gregory J. Hakim

p are temperature and pressure, respectively, p o = 10 5 Pa is a standard constant, R = 287 J K −1 kg −1 is the dry air gas constant, and c p = 1004 J K −1 kg −1 is the specific heat capacity of dry air at constant pressure; and F is the frictional force vector. As shown by Cavallo and Hakim (2009 , 2010 ), in the case of TPVs, (1) can be reasonably well approximated by neglecting F since it is comparatively small near the tropopause: where is the longwave radiative

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Omar Torres, Hiren Jethva, and P. K. Bhartia

load above clouds is important for air quality considerations as some of these aerosols eventually descend into the boundary layer, contributing to the enhancement of pollution levels. Knowledge of the amount and type of aerosol above clouds is also of interest for radiative forcing considerations. The general cooling effect of these aerosol types under clear-sky conditions may turn into a warming effect when located above clouds. Depending on their light absorption capacity, above-cloud aerosols

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Todd D. Ringler and Kerry H. Cook

1. Introduction Orography can force stationary waves by obstructing the atmospheric flow or by creating anomalies in the diabatic heating field. The physical obstruction of the low-level flow is referred to as mechanical forcing and the diabatic heating is termed thermal forcing. Mechanical forcing is strongly linked to the low-level atmospheric flow; if the surface flow changes, the mechanical forcing changes. Since thermal forcing will modify the horizontal flow, it has the potential to

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Geoffrey Gebbie, Ian Eisenman, Andrew Wittenberg, and Eli Tziperman

at all locations in the tropical Pacific. WWBs have typically been treated as stochastic forcing in numerical models, consistent with the view that ENSO may be described as a damped oscillatory system driven by external noise ( Penland and Sardeshmukh 1995 ; Kleeman and Moore 1997 ; Kessler et al. 1995 ; Battisti and Sarachik 1995 ). While WWBs occur nearly every year, numerous observational studies have shown that they are more frequent prior to and during El Niño events [see Eisenman et al

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Kerry A. Moyer and George S. Young

15 AuGusT I993 MOYER AND YOUNG 2759Buoyant Forcing within the Marine Stratocumulus-topped Boundary Layer KERRY A. MOYER AND GEORGE S. YOUNGDepartment of Meteorology, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania(Manuscript received 8 April 1991, in final form 7 December 1992)ABSTRACT A marine stratocumulus experiment was conducted offthe coast of southern California

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Dean G. Duffy

I SEPTEMBER 1995 DUFFY 3109Transient Stratospheric Planetary Waves Generated by Tropospheric Forcing DEAN G. DUFFYDepartment of Mathematical Sciences, United States Military Academy, West Point, New York(Manuscript received 22 August 1994, in final form 21 February 1995)ABSTRACT In this paper the tropospheric

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Graeme L. Stephens and Peter J. Webster

1542~rOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCESVOLUME 36Sensitivity of Radiative Forcing to Variable Cloud and Moisture GRAEME L. STEPHENS AND PETER J. WEBSTERCSIRO Division of Atmospheric Physics, Station Street, Aspendale, Victoria, Australia 3195(Manuscript received 1 November 1978, in final form 27 March 1979) ABSTRACT The influence of cloud and moisture distribution on the radiative forcing of the atmosphere is investigated.' A simple radiative transfer model is

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Ka-Ming Lau and Hock Lim

VOL. 41, NO. 2 JOURNAL OF THE ATMOSPHERIC SCIENCES JANUARY 1984On the Dynamics of Equatorial Forcing of Climate Teleconnections KA-MING LAUGoddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 HOCK LIMlDepartment of M~teorology, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA 93940(Manuscript received 23 May 1983, in final form 24 August 1983

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