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Andrew M. Chiodi, Nicholas A. Bond, Narasimhan K. Larkin, and R. James Barbour

summertime rainfall events is needed. The regional geography is characterized by the largely north–south-running coastal Cascade Mountain range, east of which lie the lower elevations of eastern Oregon and Washington’s Columbia River basin. Moving farther east, these lower elevations rise to meet the foothills of the greater Rocky Mountains ( Fig. 1 ). The climatological summertime-average midtropospheric (500 hPa) circulation is westerly with a magnitude of about 10 m s −1 over this region (which is

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Nguyen Dang-Quang, James Renwick, and James McGregor

by Sadler and Harris (1970) , Meehl (1987) , and Chang et al. (2006) ; this is shown in Fig. 3 (figures from different reanalyses are not shown). Contours show the number of vortex occurrence in each month. The average SMV location migrates north to south across the region, passing two stations named HoangSa and TruongSa ( Fig. 3 ), from summer to winter. The averaged probability of the existence of vortices in the region varies by season, increasing from a minimum of about 20% in April

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Scott J. Weaver, Stephen Baxter, and Kirstin Harnos

variability a. Spatial variations The AMJ precipitation variability ( Fig. 1 , bottom) has similar characteristics to the mean precipitation (i.e., decreasing magnitude to the north and west) with a maxima along the Gulf Coast, and exhibits substantial variability over much of the eastern two-thirds of the nation. Using the geographical placement of the mean meridional wind and spatial standard deviation of precipitation as a guide, three key areas may be defined for regional precipitation variability

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Shusaku Sugimoto, Nakaba Kobayashi, and Kimio Hanawa


Variations of the subarctic front (SAF), which is extracted as a strong sea surface temperature (SST) gradient in the longitudinal band of 146°–152°E, were investigated over 30 winters (January–March) from 1982 to 2011, using high-spatial-resolution satellite-derived SST dataset and hydrographic observations. The SAF had little meridional movement in this longitudinal band, lying between 40° and 41°N throughout the analysis period. The SAF intensity had a dominant quasi-decadal time scale (about 8 yr); its intensity in the strong phase was up to about 50% higher than in the weak phase. The SAF intensity strongly reflected upper-ocean conditions in the Kuroshio–Oyashio Confluence (KOC) region just south of the SAF. In the strong SAF phase, large positive anomalies in both temperature and salinity were found in the KOC region, not only at the sea surface but also below 300 m, and the water properties in the KOC region were those of the Kuroshio water. The warm, salty water in the KOC region was supplied by mesoscale eddies, which detached northward from the Kuroshio Extension during the unstable state of the Kuroshio Extension path.

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Emna Kamli, Cédric Chavanne, and Dany Dumont

is located in the lower St. Lawrence estuary (LSLE; Fig. 3 ), Canada, characterized by a nonuniform and variable thin ice cover (typically 0.1–0.7 m thick; Saucier et al. 2003 ) from January to March. Data acquisition was made during the 2012/13 winter, despite the fact this winter represented the sixth lowest ice volume since 1969 ( Galbraith et al. 2014 ). Fig . 3. (bottom-right insert) Study area with the location of HFR and IML-4 buoy. I.B. denotes Bic Islands. P.M. is for Manicouagan

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Motoki Nagura, Yukio Masumoto, and Takanori Horii

meridional velocity υ and meridional temperature gradient are 180° out of phase [i.e., in Eq. (1) ]. The resulting warming due to eddy heat advection is trapped near the equator ( Fig. 9 ). Fig . 8. (a)–(e) Composites of 10–30-day variability in OFES OGCM horizontal velocity (vectors) and temperature (colors) at 120-m depth for (from top to bottom) day −6, −3, 0, +3, and +6. Black circles show the location of the velocity index shown in Fig. 7 . The full period of the model integration (1999

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Martin Claus, Richard J. Greatbatch, and Peter Brandt

local group velocity: The change of local wavenumber and frequency along the ray path are given by (see Gill 1982 , chapter 8.12.3) where and is the set of spatially varying parameters of the local dispersion relation Eq. (11) . The spatial derivatives of μ are evaluated with centered differences in spherical coordinates on the same grid as the shallow-water model and subsequently are bilinearly interpolated onto the location of the ray path to perform the Lagrangian integration of Eqs. (13

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Asher Siebert

regions farther east at the same latitude. A regional rainfall climatology map for 1979–2009 is shown in Fig. 1 from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP; Adler et al. 2003 ; Huffman et al. 2009 ). Fig . 1. Rainfall climatology map adapted from GPCP data. Approximate locations of Bamako, Mali, and Agadez, Niger, are shown. Temperatures in the Sahel are quite high all year round, and rainfall occurs in a unimodal rainy season during the boreal summer, whereas areas to the south

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Brian D. Dushaw and Hanne Sagen

; discussion of this important aspect of the problem in the context of Fram Strait observations is beyond the scope of this paper. Given the ocean model and moored array scalar data, , obtained at points , the forward problem operator for the moored array is so that the data are modeled as [switching to the matrix notation of Aki and Richards (1980) for the inverse problem] where is the data noise covariance, assumed diagonal. Given scalar data for sound speed at the locations of the moored array

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Jing Zhang, Fuhong Liu, Wei Tao, Jeremy Krieger, Martha Shulski, and Xiangdong Zhang

, surface winds vary in response to the intensity and location of the Beaufort high and Aleutian low, which are the dominant synoptic-scale weather patterns in the area ( Shulski and Wendler 2007 ; Overland 2009 ; Moore 2012 ; Zhang et al. 2013 ; Wu et al. 2014 ). At the same time, surface winds can be further modulated to develop mesoscale components by local geographic features through both thermodynamic and dynamic processes. The study area exhibits complex geographic features, including

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