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Theo Brandsma and Dirk Wolters

1. Introduction Urban areas affect local and regional weather and air quality. With already one-half of the world’s population living in urban areas, the monitoring and modeling of these effects is increasing ( Arnfield 2003 ; Grimmond 2006 ; Kanda 2007 ). With the resulting models, society can anticipate the potential effects of plans and measures on the living conditions in urban environments. The most known phenomenon is the urban heat island (UHI). In general, the UHI intensity increases

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John C. Price

1554 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW VOLUME 107 NOTES AND CORRESPONDENCEAssessment of the Urban Heat Island EffectThrough the Use of Satellite Data ;om-~ C. PmCELaboratory for Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS), NASAIGoddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 16 February 1979 and 22 June 1979ABSTRACT A recent NASA satellite is obtaining high spatial

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José L. Hernández, Syewoon Hwang, Francisco Escobedo, April H. Davis, and James W. Jones

updraft moisture flow confirmed by the RH contours. The dome was somewhat extended at the base and skewed toward the eastern side of the peninsula compared to the afternoon cross section of the ALU experiment. The RHs of Fig. 7 shows lower surface RH in the afternoon, in agreement with the COAPS observations. The ALU and ELU simulations presented some differences, most noticeably in the evening when wind and urban heat island (UHI) interactions affected both cross sections. The 29°C contour of

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Roland R. Draxler

AUGUST 1986 ROLAND R. DRAXLER 1125Simulated and Observed Influence of the Nocturnal Urban Heat Island on the Local Wind Field ROLAND R. DRAXLERAir Resources Laboratory, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Silver Spring, MD 20910(Manuscript received 15 March 1985, in final form 11 January 1986)ABSTRACT A three-dimensional primative

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Jie Lu, S. Pal Arya, William H. Snyder, and Robert E. Lawson Jr.

Introduction Urban areas are generally warmer and more polluted than their rural environs. The urban-heat-island phenomenon and its associated circulation, driven by the energy generated by anthropogenic sources and the release of energy stored in the city concrete, steel, and asphalt, are found to be most intense at nighttime under clear skies and weak ambient wind. Field experiments on urban boundary layers have been conducted in many cities, such as Montreal ( Summers 1965 ), New York City

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Gerard A. DeMarrais

1975 G E R A R D A. D E M A R R A I S 235Nocturnal Heat Island Intensities and Relevance to Forecasts of Mixing Heights GERARD A. DEMARRAIStMeteorology Laboratory, National Environmental Researck Center, Research Triangle Park, N. C. 27711(Manuscript received 10 September 1974; in revised form 1! December 1974)ABSTRACT Daily minimum temperature differences for 1964 for pairs of urban and

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K. P. Gallo, A. L. McNab, T. R. Karl, J. F. Brown, J. J. Hood, and J. D. Tarpley

MAY 1993 GALLO ET AL. 899The Use of NOAA AVHRR Data for Assessment of the Urban Heat Island Effect K. P. GALLOSatellite Research Laboratory, NOAA /NESDIS, Washington, D.C. A. L. MCNAB AND T. R. KARLGlobal Climate Laboratory, NOAA /NESDIS, Asheville, North Carolina J. F. BROWNCenter for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies

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Albert F. Kurbatskii

full prognostic equation for the temperature variance, allowing a countergradient transport of heat in the upper half of the turbulent layer. This paper proposes and evaluates a turbulence closure scheme that has been implemented to make the model more useful for stably stratified flows and air pollution applications. A simple theoretical model of the nocturnal urban heat island cannot be applied to the case of near-calm conditions when the ambient wind speed approaches zero, because in low

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December 197191 9VDC 551.584.5: 551.588. i: 551.556THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECT OF MEAN WIND AND STABILITYON A HEAT ISLAND CIRCULATION CHARACTERISTIC OF AN URBAN COMPLEXFRED M. VUKOVICHEngineering and Environmental Sciences Division, Research Triangle Institute, Research Triangle Park, N.C.ABSTRACIA simple two-dimensional linear model was used to explore the nature of the heat island circulation of an urbanarea. Two stability categories, stable and near-neutral, were assumed to define the

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A. Cenedese and P. Monti

Introduction Urban heat islands (hereinafter UHIs) are defined as the warmth produced by cities [see Oke (1995) and Fernando et al. (2001) for comprehensive reviews]. The difference in terrain coverage of urban and rural areas is mainly responsible for nighttime and daytime urban–rural temperature differences that can reach, in the case of large cities, 10°C or more. During the day, concrete and asphalt store larger amounts of incoming solar radiation than those typically retained by grassy

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