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Fei Chen and Michael Ghil

oscillation analyzed inan earlier, uncoupled model by the same authors. Central to the mechanism is the prescribed component in thesurface heat fluxes. In this coupled model, the prescribed forcing component comes from solar radiation. Surfacedensity variations in high latitudes drive the oscillation and are due to the cooling effect of atmospheric forcing there. Sensitivity studies are performed by adjusting two free parameters in the model: the atmospheric thermaldiffusion coefficient and air

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Daoxun Sun, Annalisa Bracco, Roy Barkan, Maristella Berta, Daniel Dauhajre, M. Jeroen Molemaker, Jun Choi, Guangpeng Liu, Annalisa Griffa, and James C. McWilliams

high-resolution infrared images, and its surroundings, and released 326 drifters in a “radiator” pattern in the DeSoto Canyon on 7 February, during a period of relatively calm wind, ~8 m s −1 (this value corresponds to the average wind during LASER). The wind increased during the following days, reaching 15 m s −1 by the end of the second day after release. The analysis is performed using drifter triplets to reconstruct the dynamical properties of the flow, that is, vertical relative vorticity

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Terrence M. Joyce and Marvel C. Stalcup

f '~.~)~//~ z . ~ . /. . , .. ~-~' : : , ~ , , ,40-N35- 70ow 60- FIG. 2. Schematic diaram of the Gulf Stream system made from NOAA's Oceano~zaphic Ana]yMs Charts and basedupon satellite AVHRR thermal infrared and scattered shipboard data. The time periods shown coincide w~th two XBTsurveys of warm-core tin $2I made by the USNS ~rdctL. Between the two time periods the fin translated to thesouthwest alon th~ souther~ flank

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Lisan Yu and Michael J. McPhaden

the subtropical jet as a determinant of cyclone track and intensification. Reale et al. (2009) found that new three-dimensional atmospheric data from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) instrument on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Aqua satellite can improve the track forecast up to 4 days in advance by improving the position of the cyclone’s center. The present analysis focuses on oceanic conditions before and during Cyclone Nargis with emphasis on two questions

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Nicola Howe and Arnaud Czaja

. NOC1.1 was constructed using ship meteorological reports, from the COADS 1a dataset over the period 1980–93. [ Josey et al. (1998) give a full account of the development of this climatology.] The heat fluxes were calculated from the ship reports using semiempirical formulas. The net heat flux ( Q net ) between ocean and atmosphere (positive values indicate ocean heat gain) is given by the linear combination of incoming shortwave solar radiation ( Q SW ), outgoing longwave radiation ( Q LW

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Robert H. Weisberg and Thomas J. Weingartner

~0. ] 800. [24-W I~G. 7. Time series of PKE, PPE, and their sum, TPE, at 10 mdepth for the moorings (a): top along 28-W and (b): bottom alongthe equator. The indicated background level at the equator is thesame as in Fig. 6. Tic marks along the time axis denote the first dayof the month.NECC which would account for the increase in PPEand the prominence of instability waves observed northof the equator in satellite infrared imagery (Legeckiset al. 1983). Along the equator Fig. 7b shows that

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Andrew C. Vastano and George E. Owens

~ ~ / ....'4--L_~ _1__ I I___L__ i &__ I I2054 205540 20 LONG. 85- 42'W LAI. 35- 4' NFro. 2. Sound isovel section (m see-0 for cruise CF 156.3. The 1967 cyclonic rings During the aerial survey of the Gulf Stream on1 March 1967, the formation of a cyclonic ring near37N, 66W was detected with an infrared radiation thermometer (Bratnick el al., 1968). The detachment of thering took place over a 15-day period and was studiedon ASWEPS aircraft flights by the Naval

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C. L. Tang

Satellite data (infrared imagery of NOAA 5)covering the months July-October 1978 were obtained from the Atmospheric Environment Servicein Toronto. The coverage for August is most extensive with 17 days of data as compared to 4 forJuly, 5 for September and 5 for October. The currentmeter data presented in this paper start from midJuly and end in early September. This particularperiod is selected because of the relatively densesatellite coverage. Normally the Gaspe Current appears in the satellite

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Thor Jakobsson

distinct peakindicating a diurnal variation (Fig. la). The diurnalvariation shows up in certain other spectra (not shown),but according to the tim, sequence of the normalizedautospectra of sea surface temperature (Fig. 2) itsimportance relative to other frequencies varies from onetime series to another. The dinmaI variation of seasurface temperature chiefly depends on the dailychanges of radiation income, of heat exchange at thesea surface, and of turbulent mixing in the uppermostlayer of the sea. Roll

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Reginald E. Newell and Jane Hsiung

energyexceeds outgoing infrared energy at low latitudes whilethe reverse is true at high latitudes, the low-latitudesurplus and high-latitude deficit being brought intobalance by a poleward energy transfer in the atmosphere and ocean. From the theory ofbaroclinic eddies,Green (1970) predicted that the atmospheric meridional energy flux by large-scale eddies was proportionalto the square of the meridional temperature gradientand he demonstrated this relationship with some ofthe early Northern Hemisphere

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