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Daniel Deacu, Vincent Fortin, Erika Klyszejko, Christopher Spence, and Peter D. Blanken

Soulis et al. (2011) . The model used for gridded river routing is WATROUTE, which is the routing component of the hydrological model WATFLOOD ( Kouwen 2010 ). WATROUTE and ISBA share the same grid. The drainage simulated by ISBA is directly transferred to WATROUTE, whereas the surface runoff is first delayed over the grid cell by the kinematic wave method to simulate the overland flow (flow over the land surface following its slope) and then added to the interflow before being transferred. WATROUTE

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Katja Friedrich, Evan A. Kalina, Joshua Aikins, David Gochis, and Roy Rasmussen

.1175/1520-0493(1978)106<0375:COMAOT>2.0.CO;2 . Marwitz, J. D. , 1987 : Deep orographic storms over the Sierra Nevada. Part I: Thermodynamic and kinematic structure . J. Atmos. Sci. , 44 , 159 – 173 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1987)044<0159:DOSOTS>2.0.CO;2 . McKee, T. B. , and Doesken N. J. , 1997 : Final report: Colorado extreme precipitation data study. Climatology Rep. 97 - 1 , Dept. of Atmospheric Science, Colorado State University, 107 pp. [Available online at

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Charlotte M. Emery, Cédric H. David, Konstantinos M. Andreadis, Michael J. Turmon, John T. Reager, Jonathan M. Hobbs, Ming Pan, James S. Famiglietti, Edward Beighley, and Matthew Rodell

such as the kinematic wave equation ( Weinmann 1979 ) or the Muskingum method ( McCarthy 1938 ; Cunge 1969 ). Models such as Total Runoff Integrating Pathways (TRIP; Oki and Sud 1998 ), PCRaster Global Water Balance model (PCR-GLOBWB; van Beek and Bierkens 2008 ), or Hydrological Modeling and Analysis Platform (HyMAP; Getirana et al. 2012 ) use the kinematic wave approximation while others such as the Global Water Availability Assessment (GWAVA; Meigh et al. 1999 ), Hillslope River Routing

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Brian Henn, Rachel Weihs, Andrew C. Martin, F. Martin Ralph, and Tashiana Osborne

:// . 10.1175/JHM-D-17-0098.1 Marwitz , J. D. , 1983 : The kinematics of orographic airflow during Sierra storms . J. Atmos. Sci. , 40 , 1218 – 1227 ,<1218:TKOOAD>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1983)040<1218:TKOOAD>2.0.CO;2 Marwitz , J. D. , 1987 : Deep orographic storms over the Sierra Nevada. Part I: Thermodynamic and kinematic structure . J. Atmos. Sci. , 44 , 159 – 173 ,

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Ridwan Siddique and Alfonso Mejia

also accumulate snow and generate hillslope snowmelt based on the near-surface temperature. The hillslope runoff, generated at each grid cell by SAC-HT and SNOW-17, is routed to the stream network using a nonlinear kinematic wave algorithm ( Koren et al. 2004 ; Smith et al. 2012 ). Similarly, flows in the stream network are routed downstream using a nonlinear kinematic wave that accounts for parameterized stream cross-sectional shapes ( Koren et al. 2004 ; Smith et al. 2012 ). Here we run HL

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Katja Friedrich, Evan A. Kalina, Joshua Aikins, Matthias Steiner, David Gochis, Paul A. Kucera, Kyoko Ikeda, and Juanzhen Sun

(collisions) that limited drop size (larger drops would break up), or the distance between the melting layer and the ground. Future studies should identify the role of low-level convergence on the precipitation formation in the mountains. It would be interesting to determine the degree to which observations may be able to quantify and track low-level convergence and assess how well numerical models might reproduce the kinematic field. Acknowledgments The authors thank the organizations, technicians

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James M. Gilbert, Reed M. Maxwell, and David J. Gochis

nested WRF simulation, a spatial and temporal (14–28 July 2003) subset of the simulated conditions from the 3-km nest was processed to produce boundary and initial conditions for the coupled San Joaquin basin domain. c. ParFlow hydrologic model The ParFlow component of this study simulates variably saturated subsurface flow and overland flow with a fully implicit solution of the three-dimensional mixed form of the Richards equation and a kinematic wave approximation for surface flow ( Ashby and

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Graham P. Weedon, Christel Prudhomme, Sue Crooks, Richard J. Ellis, Sonja S. Folwell, and Martin J. Best

discharge time series for 1963–2001 ( ). Haddeland et al. (2011) provide summaries and references to the designs of the models (excluding CLASSIC) with comparisons of monthly average outputs globally and for selected large catchments. CLASSIC uses a 20 km × 20 km grid, rather than the WATCH 0.5° grid, with flow paths and runoff delays represented as a kinematic wave from headwater grid boxes to the outlet grid box ( Crooks and Naden 2007 ). The only models calibrated

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Hong-Yi Li, L. Ruby Leung, Augusto Getirana, Maoyi Huang, Huan Wu, Yubin Xu, Jiali Guo, and Nathalie Voisin

(MOSART) is a recently developed large-scale routing model with scale adaptive treatments of within- and between-grid routing processes. MOSART uses the kinematic wave equation for subgrid surface runoff and channel routing and for routing channel flow from one grid cell to another. Li et al. (2013) evaluated MOSART at the Columbia River basin in the U.S. Pacific Northwest, where excellent observation data are available. They showed that, under natural conditions, MOSART is capable of capturing the

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Deborah K. Nykanen, Efi Foufoula-Georgiou, and William M. Lapenta

. Perica and Foufoula-Georgiou (1996a) also established an empirical connection between statistical and physical storm characteristics by quantifying relations between the scaling parameter H and thermodynamic or kinematic indices of the prestorm environment, such as, the convective available potential energy (CAPE), convective inhibition, bulk Richardson number, wind shear, and severe weather threat index. The best correlation was obtained with CAPE, and only a small improvement in the explained

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