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Danlu Cai, Klaus Fraedrich, Frank Sielmann, Ling Zhang, Xiuhua Zhu, Shan Guo, and Yanning Guan

, based on results from long-term watershed experiments, can attribute total change to impacts of external or climate and internal or land-use/watershed change ( Tomer and Schilling 2009 ). The Tibetan Plateau, defined as the center of the “Third Pole,” is highly sensitive to climate change and to anthropogenic activities ( Hu et al. 2012 ; Wang et al. 2008 ; Kang et al. 2010 ). Therefore, this paper visits two periods attributing observed changes to external or climate impact or to internal or

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Danlu Cai, Klaus Fraedrich, Frank Sielmann, Yanning Guan, and Shan Guo

1. Introduction Climate change and land use have an impact on catchment water balance and hence on water yield and groundwater recharge ( Barnett et al. 2008 ; Milly et al. 2007 ; Voepel et al. 2011 ; Wagener et al. 2010 ; Zhang et al. 2001 ). Early quantitative analyses of rainfall–runoff chain dynamics on watershed scales as part of the climate system have employed the Budyko (1974) framework, which is centered on the aridity index relating water demand to supply combining energy and

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Weiyue Zhang, Zhongfeng Xu, and Weidong Guo

1. Introduction Human activities have altered 42%–68% of the global land surface by transforming natural vegetation into crops, pastures, and woods for harvesting from the years 1700 to 2000 ( Hurtt et al. 2006 ). The biogeophysical climate impacts of human-induced land-cover change have been investigated using various general circulation models (GCM), regional climate models, and observations (e.g., Pielke et al. 2002 ; Fu 2003 ; Feddema et al. 2005 ; Bonan 2008 ). The Fifth Assessment

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John Xun Yang, Darren S. Mckague, and Christopher S. Ruf

using standard open-ocean algorithms invalid. This phenomenon is often referred to as land contamination. To further illustrate the land contamination problem, Fig. 2 shows an example of the observed brightness temperature (TB) by SSM/I over the Great Lakes. Coastal areas of all lakes are contaminated: in particular, the SSM/I footprint extends across all of Lake Ontario, so that all of the lake data are contaminated. Because of land contamination, coastal data have to be discarded without

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K. G. Hubbard and F. J. Flores-mendoza

FEBRUARY 1995 HUBBARD AND FLORES-MENDOZA 329Relating United States Crop Land Use to Natural Resources and Climate Change K. G. HUBBARD AND F. J. FLORES-MENDOZADepartment of Agricultural Meteorology, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, Nebraska(Manuscript received 24 June 1993, in final form 30 March 1994) ABSTRACT Crop production depends not only on the yield but also on the area

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Karen Kosiba, Joshua Wurman, Forrest J. Masters, and Paul Robinson

wind maps over Port Arthur using the space-filled DOW wind data. Corresponding to the DOW data coverage over Port Arthur, a 10 km × 10 km mapping domain was chosen and partitioned into 1600 squares of 0.25 km × 0.25 km in order to account for the effects of the inhomogeneous surface roughness on the 10-m radar-derived winds. Each of the 1600 squares was assigned a roughness length z 0 based on land use within that segment. Land use was determined through the use of Google Earth images, the

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William J. Shaw and J. Christopher Doran

in surface characteristics. For example, Ookouchi et al. (1984) , using a 2D mesoscale model, found that significant circulations developed in response to soil moisture discontinuities over flat land under light wind conditions. Avissar and Pielke (1989) also found that significant circulations developed in 2D simulations of alternating strips of either partial or full vegetation and dry soil. Hadfield et al. (1992) used a large eddy simulation to explore the effects of surface heat flux

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Zahra Sharifnezhadazizi, Hamid Norouzi, Satya Prakash, Christopher Beale, and Reza Khanbilvardi

from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors have been used for urban heat island detection, assessment of land surface changes, evaluation of land surface model outputs, land and atmospheric parameters retrieval, and several other applications ( Wan 2014 ; Norouzi et al. 2015 ; Prakash et al. 2016 , 2018 ; Didari et al. 2017 ; Mildrexler et al. 2018 ). However, MODIS sensors are unable to provide complete global coverage of diurnal LST estimates, and a spatiotemporal

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Gunnar Myhre and Arne Myhre

1. Introduction Anthropogenic activity has yielded a wide range of climate forcing mechanisms ( Hansen et al. 1998 ; Shine and Forster 1999 ; Houghton et al. 2001 ). Humans have perturbed the radiative balance of the earth in two principal ways: combustion of fossil fuels and land-use change. These activities have both resulted in increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases and atmospheric aerosols. The latter involves growth of aerosols from biomass burning and possibly higher abundance of

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E.-H. Yoo, D. Chen, Chunyuan Diao, and Curtis Russell

robust spatiotemporal model that predicts mosquito population dynamics is a challenging task because mosquito abundance is determined by complex interactions among weather, land-use, and vegetation coverage as well as the blood meal availability and intensity of mosquito control efforts. Our understanding of the effects of weather and environmental factors is limited, and the availability of data at a fine spatial and temporal resolution is not guaranteed. Data contaminated by measurement error may

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