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Martin D. Weissmann, G. J. Mayr, R. M. Banta, and A. Gohm

(e.g., Banta et al. 1990 , 1996 , 1997 , 1999 ), including downslope windstorm investigations in which hydraulic jump–like structures were revealed ( Banta et al. 1990 ; Clark et al. 1994 ) and MAP studies of gap flow in the Wipp Valley ( Flamant et al. 2002 ; Gohm and Mayr 2004 ; Gohm et al. 2004 ). The present study makes use of the whole dataset of the 2 through 3 October 1999 foehn event. In addition to the lidar observations, in situ measurements from the NOAA P-3 aircraft along Wipp

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Laurent Sauvage, Pierre H. Flamant, Hélène Chepfer, Gérard Brogniez, Vincent Trouillet, Jacques Pelon, and Franck Albers

Monthly Weather Review, Vol. 118, No. 11, 1990 and the Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences, Vol. 52, No. 23, 1995), and the International Cirrus Experiment (ICE’89) in 1989 ( Raschke et al. 1990 ). During the field campaigns in situ probes, passive (i.e., radiometers) and active (i.e., lidars, radars) remote sensors, either airborne or ground based, have been deployed to document different cirrus cloud layers at the mesoscale while satellite data were provided with synoptic-scale observations

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Anders A. Jensen, James O. Pinto, Sean C. C. Bailey, Ryan A. Sobash, Gijs de Boer, Adam L. Houston, Phillip B. Chilson, Tyler Bell, Glen Romine, Suzanne W. Smith, Dale A. Lawrence, Cory Dixon, Julie K. Lundquist, Jamey D. Jacob, Jack Elston, Sean Waugh, and Matthias Steiner

relationship between pitch required to maintain profile location and drag associated with the changing form factor of the tilting aircraft. They also showed that correlations between UAS wind direction and those obtained with radiosonde and the CLAMPS lidar where much lower than those found for wind speed. Despite these issues, Barbieri et al. (2019) found that observations obtained by a range of UAS deployed during LAPSE-RATE agreed remarkably well (particularly for temperature) with wind measurements

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Kenneth Sassen and Steven K. Krueger

. REFERENCESFraser, A. B., and C. F. Bohren, 1992: Is virga rain that evaporates before reaching the ground? Mon. Wea. Rev., 120, 1565-1571.Krueger, S. K., and R. M. Wakimoto, 1985: Numerical simulationof dry microbursts. Preprints, 14th Conf. on Severe Local Storms.Indianapolis, Amer. Meteor. Soc., 163-166.Sassen, K., 1977: Lidar observations of high plains thunderstorm precipitation. J. Atmos. Sci., 34, 1444-1457.--, 1991: The polarization lidar technique for cloud research: A review and current

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Pieter Groenemeijer, Christian Barthlott, Ulrich Corsmeier, Jan Handwerker, Martin Kohler, Christoph Kottmeier, Holger Mahlke, Andreas Wieser, Andreas Behrendt, Sandip Pal, Marcus Radlach, Volker Wulfmeyer, and Jörg Trentmann

al. 1998 ; Marsham et al. 2007 ). Other processes include the interaction of convective up- and downdrafts with the flow in the mid- and upper troposphere, and with stable, dry layers or lids ( Morcrette et al. 2007 ). A major part of this case study concerns yet another interaction, namely, that which resulted in a dry and warm downdraft that has positive thermal buoyancy. It formed as a response to the upward mass flux associated with the convective updrafts. Observations of such compensatory

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Paul M. Markowski, Nathan T. Lis, David D. Turner, Temple R. Lee, and Michael S. Buban

of vertical wind profiles within the surface layer, both near and within convective storms, and their departures from MOST. We analyze data obtained from a Doppler lidar and instrumented towers deployed during the Verification of the Origins of Rotation in Tornadoes Experiment–Southeast (VORTEX-SE) field campaign during the spring of 2017. We are in desperate need of near-surface wind observations—and knowledge of their departures from MOST—in order to assess the credibility of present

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M. Kästner, K. T. Kriebel, R. Meerkötter, W. Renger, G. H. Ruppersberg, and P. Wendling

, R. G., S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek, Ch. Ham, and W. T. Grandy Jr., 1990: Backscatter and extinction in water clouds. J. Geophys. Res., 88, 6787-6796.Plass, G. N., G. W. Kattawar, and F. E. Catchings, 1973: Matrix operator-theory of radiative transfer. Appl. Opt., 12, 314-329.Platt, C. M. R., D. W. Reynolds, and N. L. Abshire, 1980: Satellite and lidar observations of the albedo, emittance and optical depth of cirrus compared to model calculations. Mon. Wea. Rev., 108, 195-204.Pollinger

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F. Ravetta and G. Ancellet

distributions of long-lived trace gases, ozone, and light hydrocarbons that transport and mixing probably exist in a COL system without specifying mechanisms responsible for such transport. To better understand these mechanisms, Price and Vaughan (1993) followed the time evolution of ozone in a COL using satellite observations, but limited vertical resolution of these data and difficulty accounting for the effect of clouds made interpretation difficult. More recently, ground-based lidar observations with

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Belay Demoz, Cyrille Flamant, Tammy Weckwerth, David Whiteman, Keith Evans, Frédéric Fabry, Paolo Di Girolamo, David Miller, Bart Geerts, William Brown, Geary Schwemmer, Bruce Gentry, Wayne Feltz, and Zhien Wang

dimension of the box being parallel to the dryline. In this section, we examine the horizontal variability of the moisture field in the BL as observed by L2 on 22 May 2002 along one of the early east–west survey legs (shown in Fig. 1 ). Horizontal pointing DIAL measurements made in the framework of IHOP_2002 provided the first ever lidar observations of the horizontal structure of the water vapor field in the vicinity of drylines. The two-dimensional horizontal structure of the water vapor field

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David A. Rahn, Thomas R. Parish, and David Leon

m the temperature profile follows a dry adiabatic lapse rate indicating a well-mixed layer. Just below the subsidence inversion the dewpoint indicates saturation, consistent with the lidar and satellite observations of a thin cloud. Below 300 m the temperature no longer follows the dry adiabatic lapse rate and becomes a few degrees cooler than the air above, representing another cooler, stable layer below. Perhaps the most compelling evidence of the existence of three distinct layers is the wind

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