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severest tornadoes of record.broad swat E of damage and destruction. In fact, thereA t the Weather Bureau ofice, also southeast of the pat % ,as it di B on September 29, 1927; that is, it indicated aMETEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS OVER THEBy H. MEREIThe observations referred to in the following article were made on October 14, 15, and 16, 1926, during a e in the Mediterranean Sea between Alexandriavoy%i and alta, and consist of measurements of the sea- surface temperature, the air temperature, and relative

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J. Cuxart, M. A. Jiménez, M. Telišman Prtenjak, and B. Grisogono

the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula (IP) has been analyzed in many studies (e.g., Millan et al. 1997 ; Kottmeier et al. 2000 ; Azorin-Molina et al. 2009 ; Fock and Schlünzen 2012 ; Hernández-Ceballos et al. 2013 ). The nearby island of Mallorca, Spain ( Fig. 1 ), has a very large occurrence of SB, up to 70%–80% of the days in summer ( Ramis and Romero 1995 , hereinafter RR95 ). It is located in the western Mediterranean Sea, 200 km away from the Iberian coast—far enough not to be

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F. Raffa, G. Ludeno, B. Patti, F. Soldovieri, S. Mazzola, and F. Serafino

water usually present on the sea surface, the upwelling phenomenon has a significant impact on the marine environment because is able to boost both the primary and fish production in coastal Mediterranean areas generally characterized by highly oligotrophic conditions ( Agostini and Bakun 2002 ; García Lafuente et al. 2002 ; Patti et al. 2004 , 2008 , 2010 ). This paper is focused on the northern sector of the Strait of Sicily, where often a lower surface water temperature regime along the coast

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Riccardo Farneti, Stefano Salon, Alessandro Crise, and Rodney Martinez

BACKGROUND. The Mediterranean and Caribbean Seas, though geographically different, present many interesting analogies when climatic change impacts, adaptation, and mitigation strategies are addressed. Both basins are, in different measures, affected by major natural pressures. Changes in sea surface temperature, storm tracks, frequency of extreme events, sea level rise, and ocean acidification exert unprecedented pressure on the marine ecosystem. These pressures are commonly entangled with

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Isla R. Simpson, Richard Seager, Tiffany A. Shaw, and Mingfang Ting

in water resources, it is important that we have faith in these model predictions. This can be achieved through a complete understanding of the processes that govern Mediterranean climate, both in the current climate and under future climate change. Land areas in the Mediterranean receive their moisture during the winter ( Mariotti et al. 2002 ; Seager et al. 2014 ), when the region has an active local storm track over the Mediterranean sea and is also under the influence of midlatitude storm

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Sante Laviola, Agata Moscatello, Mario Marcello Miglietta, Elsa Cattani, and Vincenzo Levizzani

Mediterranean basin. The Alps are responsible for such deflections for the Northern Atlantic systems and the Atlas Mountains for the southern ones. These systems transit over the warm Mediterranean and western Europe, and find favorable conditions for cyclogenesis over the Western Mediterranean ( Buzzi and Tibaldi 1978 ). Also, Mediterranean disturbances frequently develop as a consequence of the interaction of an unusually deep upper-tropospheric trough and cold air with the relative warmth of the sea

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Mario Marcello Miglietta, Jordi Mazon, and Richard Rotunno

that many tornadoes occur near the Mediterranean coast, which is surrounded by steep mountains, we expect that the interaction with the orography, the land–sea contrast, and the intense air–sea interaction are important in the Mediterranean environment ( Lionello et al. 2006 ), determining significant meso- β - and meso- γ scale variations of the relevant instability parameters. This is very different from the more homogeneous, synoptic-scale setting typical for the severe convective weather of

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Christopher Garrett and Fouad Majaess

656 JOURNAL OF PHYSICAL OCEANOGRAPHY VOLU~14Nonisostatic Response of Sea Level to Atmospheric Pressure in the Eastern Mediterranean CHRISTOPHER GARRETT AND FOUAD MAJAESSDepartment of Oceanography. Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS. Canada BSH 4.I1(Manuscript received 30 September 1983, in final form 11 January 1984) We analyze 5 months of sea-level data from Katakolon, Gneece, in terms of local

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Francisco Pastor, MarÍa J. Estrela, David Peñarrocha, and Millán M. Millán

leading edge, a mass of maritime polar air (mP) across north-central Europe and through the Rhone Valley toward the western Mediterranean ( Fig. 3a ). By the time it reached the sea, its surface temperature was still some 6°–10°C lower than the Mediterranean SST. The southerly transport along the surface was accompanied by the displacement of a trough of cold air aloft, and both resulted in the development of a Genoa depression, as shown in Figs. 3a, b , which produced generalized storms over central

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Silvio Davolio, Francesco Silvestro, and Thomas Gastaldo

inland with heavy and persistent rainfall that became devastating floods in a few hours in small watersheds. In general, the precipitation systems affecting Liguria often originate over the Mediterranean Sea, and the interaction with the orography may enhance rainfall intensity. These are usually characterized by short durations (12–36 h) and high intensities ( Deidda et al. 1999 ; Boni et al. 2007 ). The polarimetric C-band radar that covers the region (location in Fig. 1b ) is therefore a

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