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Sydney Levitus and Grigory Isayev

, and eastern Mediterranean surface wa ters. Deep-Sea Res., 28A, 1161-1172.Reid, R. O., 1958: Influence of some errors in the equation of state or in observations on geostrophic currents. Physical and chemical properties of seawater. Publ. 600, Nat. Acad. Sci., Nat. Res. Counc., Washington, D.C., 10-29.UNESCO, 1981: Background papers and supporting data on the in ternational equation of state of seawater. Tech. Pap. Mar. Sci., 38, 192 pp. ,1983: Algorithms for computation of fundamental

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P. Forget, M. Saillard, C.-A. Guérin, J. Testud, and E. Le Bouar

)-dominated wave system corresponds to an F p smaller (greater) than . Certainly, mixed wind sea/swell situations may exist. In view of the extended radar coverage, we also considered the surface wind data computed by the mesoscale model MM5 operated by ACRI SA Company over the northwestern Mediterranean Sea. MM5, from Pennsylvania State University and the National Center for Atmospheric Research, is embedded in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction weather forecast model and provides 3 h(6 km

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Albin M. Závody and Andrew R. Birks

received from an unpolarized incident signal ( r 0 I 0 ). This is r 0 ( S x + S y ) I 0 . (A11) Thus if we define the polarization sensitivity ratio S = S x / S y , (A12) we find that This is Eq. (5) . Obviously Eq. (3) of the main text follows in the case of no polarization rotation, ψ = 0. Fig . 1. Top-of-atmosphere 0.56- μ m reflectivities measured on 25 May 1998 over the Mediterranean Sea. The southern coast of Turkey and the

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Fabian Schloesser, Peter Cornillon, Kathleen Donohue, Brahim Boussidi, and Emily Iskin

underlying daytime and nighttime SST fields or the processing. In cases with high diurnal warming, such as the eastern Mediterranean during summer months, we have noticed a significant increase in the mean SST gradient magnitude due to patchiness in the surface wind speed. This explanation is more likely to be valid in the Sargasso Sea, where the day–night difference is more pronounced in summer (not shown), as is the diurnal warming ( Cornillon and Stramma 1985 ). It is not so likely in the Gulf Stream

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Gérard Brogniez, Christophe Pietras, Michel Legrand, Philippe Dubuisson, and Martial Haeffelin

perturbations for applications in agrometeorology, forestry, and geology. The prototype CLIMAT was operated from 6 to 15 July 1995, in the plain of La Crau (43.68°N, 4.63°E), near the Mediterranean Sea. Sun photometric measurements in the shortwave range were performed at the same site. Balloon radiosoundings launched daily at the regional meteorological station of Nîmes (43.83°N, 4.31°E) 40 km away, gave the opportunity to compare the radiometric sky measurements to the corresponding simulations based on

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Giulio Notarstefano, Pierre-Marie Poulain, and Elena Mauri

currents directly from sequential satellite images of sea surface temperature (SST) patterns. The first technique is based on a manual feature tracking and visual identification of surface thermal features. The displacements of the SST patterns are computed by observing the movements of selected features in pairs of sequential images ( La Violette 1984 ; Vastano and Borders 1984 ; Vastano and Reid 1985 ; Vastano et al. 1985 ; Svejkovsky 1988 ). This methodology is rather subjective as it depends

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M. Lothon,B. Campistron, S. Jacoby-Koaly, B. Bénech, F. Lohou, F. Girard-Ardhuin, and A. Druilhet

. Investigation of pollution transport, diffusion, and production was the scientific objective of the campaign. A UHF profiler was operated in the center of the town at about 1 km from the coast. Westward and 30 km away from Marseille, another UHF profiler was installed in Saint-Chamas, near the Mediterranean Sea in a rural area (43.53°N, 5.07°E). These profilers are identical to the ones described in L2002 . In particular, every 5 min they provide a vertical profile with a 75-m height resolution based on a

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Jørgen B. Jensen, Stuart P. Beaton, Jeffrey L. Stith, Karl Schwenz, Marilé Colón-Robles, Robert M. Rauber, and John Gras

, and J. G. Hudson , 2008 : An investigation of the influence of droplet number concentration and giant aerosol particles upon supercooled large drop formation in wintertime stratiform clouds . J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol. , 47 , 2659 – 2678 , . 10.1175/2008JAMC1807.1 Levin , Z. , A. Teller , and E. Ganor , 2005 : On the interactions of mineral dust, sea-salt particles, and clouds: A measurement and modeling study from the Mediterranean Israeli

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Sheldon Bacon and Nick Fofonoff

. Deep-Sea Res., 29, 339-359.Macdonald, A. M., J. Candela, and H. L. Bryden, 1994: An estimate of the net heat transport through the Strait of Gibraltar. Seasonal and Interannual Variability of the Western Mediterranean Sea, P. E. LaViolette, Ed., Coastal and Estuarine Studies, Vol. 46 Amer. Geophys. Union, 13-32.Saunders, P. M., 1995: The Bernoulli function and flux of energy in the ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 100(C11 ), 22 647-22 648.

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Kalpesh Patil, M. C. Deo, and M. Ravichandran

based on past SST data, while the one by Garcia-Gorriz and Garcia-Sanchez (2007) considered meteorological variables as input to predict targeted satellite-derived SST values in the western Mediterranean Sea. The networks trained in this way predicted the seasonal and interannual variability of the SST well. Gupta and Malmgren (2009) compared the prediction skills of different methods based on certain transfer functions, regressions, and an NN at the Antarctic and Pacific Oceans and found that

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